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Pyrotechnic Formulas: Stars

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Chapter 8: Colored Stars

Red star #1
Source: rec.pyrotechnics archive. Composition from Shimizu[1], page 215
Comments: The perchlorate can be substituted by chlorate without changing the color.
Preparation:

Potassium perchlorate.............................66
Red gum...........................................13
Lampblack.........................................2
Strontium carbonate...............................12
Polyvinyl chloride................................2
Soluble Glutinous Rice Starch.....................5

Red star #2
Source:
Comments:
Preparation: Dissolve shellac in boiling ethanol, add the other ingredients and proceed as usual. The stars take unexpectedly long to dry. They can be dried in the sun or in a vacuum. Smaller stars dry faster.

Potassium chlorate................................20
Strontium nitrate.................................60
Shellac...........................................20

Red star #3
Source:
Comments:
Preparation: Dissolve shellac in boiling ethanol, and add the other ingredients.

Potassium chlorate................................65
Strontium carbonate...............................15
Shellac...........................................20

Red star #4
Source:
Comments:
Preparation: Dissolve shellac in boiling ethanol, and add the other ingredients.

Potassium perchlorate.............................44
Strontium nitrate.................................31
Red gum...........................................15
Shellac (binder)..................................5
PVC or saran .....................................8 or 7

Red star #5
Source:
Comments:
Preparation: Add water. For priming "priming composition #7" from the chapter with miscellaneous compositions can be used.

Ammonium perchlorate..............................30
Potassium perchlorate.............................35
Strontium carbonate...............................18
Hexamine..........................................2
Charcoal, fine....................................2
Red gum...........................................16
Dextrin...........................................4

Red star #6
Source: "The pyroguide" (a document found on internet)
Comments: Dangerous mixture, since it contains both sulfur and a chlorate.
Preparation: Bind with shellac dissolved in ethanol.

Potassium chlorate................................9
Sulfur............................................2
Lampblack.........................................1
Strontium nitrate.................................9

Red star #7
Source: post on rec.pyrotechnics by Tommy Hakomaki <tommy.hakomaki@mailbox.swipnet.se. Composition from an old swedish book.
Comments:
Preparation:

Potassium nitrate.................................36
Sulfur............................................30
Meal powder.......................................36
Strontium nitrate.................................40
Antimony sulfide..................................5
Charcoal..........................................12

Red star #8
Source: rec.pyrotechnics. Post by Andrew Krywonizka. Composition from Lancaster[2].
Comments: Produce as a cut star
Preparation:

Potassium perchlorate.............................70
Strontium carbonate...............................15
Red gum...........................................9
Charcoal 150 Mesh.................................2
Dextrin...........................................4

Red star #9
Source: rec.pyrotechnics. Post by Andrew Krywonizka. Composition from Lancaster[2].
Comments: Produce as a pressed star
Preparation:

Strontium nitrate.................................55
Magnesium.........................................28
PVC...............................................17

Red star #10
Source: PML, post by David Abate <daveab@ix.netcom.com.
Comments: Crackling stars can be made with this composition. The poster used large pistol primers (idea from Best of AFN II), coated with 70%KClO4/30% Dark aluminum for cores, and rolled these into stars with the star mixture. The stars were hard to ignite and needed priming.
Preparation:

Potassium perchlorate.............................68
Strontium carbonate...............................13
Red gum...........................................14
Dextrin...........................................5

Red star #11
Source: rec.pyrotechnics archive. Composition from Shimizu[1], page 217. It s listed under the name "Red star brilliant".
Comments:
Preparation: The magnesium must be coated with linseed oil. Use an acetone or alcohol solvable binder.

Potassium perchlorate.............................30
Strontium nitrate (anhydride).....................20
Magnesium, 60 mesh................................30
PVC...............................................18
Lampblack or Paulownia coal.......................2

Red star #12
Source: rec.pyrotechnics archive. Composition from Shimizu[1], page 219. It s listed under the name "Ammon red star brilliant".
Comments:
Preparation:

Ammonium perchlorate..............................41
Magnesium, 60 mesh................................33.3
Red gum...........................................9.5
Strontium carbonate...............................9.5
Potassium bichromate..............................1.9
Soluble glutinous rice starch.....................4.8

Green star #1
Source: Composition from Shimizu[1], page 215
Comments:
Preparation:

Barium nitrate....................................28.3
Potassium Perchlorate.............................47.2
Parlon............................................4.7
Red Gum...........................................14.2
Soluble Glutinous Rice Starch.....................5.6

Green star #2
Source:
Comments: A simple but nice (somewhat yellowish) green.
Preparation: Dissolve shellac in boiling ethanol.

barium nitrate....................................7
potassium chlorate................................7
shellac...........................................2

Green star #3
Source:
Comments: The composition leaves lots of ash. Ammonium perchlorate improves it (- Green star #4).
Preparation: Mix Parlon with magnesium. Add 50 volume parts of acetone, mix well and mix in the other ingredients. If PVC is used, add the correct amount of the solution in THF to the other ingredients.

barium nitrate....................................50
lab grade magnesium powder........................32
Parlon or PVC.....................................18

Green star #4
Source:
Comments:
Preparation: Mix Parlon with magnesium. Add 60 volume parts of acetone for Parlon, mix well and mix in the other ingredients. If PVC is used, add the correct amount of the solution in THF to the other ingredients.

barium nitrate....................................56
lab grade magnesium powder........................32
Parlon or PVC ....................................17
ammonium perchlorate..............................25

Green star #5
Source:
Comments: This mixture can be improved using ammonium perchlorate (Green star #6).
Preparation: Add acetone. Prime with black powder. Aluminum should be very fine, preferably dark pyro grade.

Barium nitrate....................................65
Aluminum (very fine)..............................10
Parlon rubber.....................................20
Sulfur............................................4
Boric acid........................................2

Green star #6
Source:
Comments: Fierce burning.
Preparation: Add acetone. Prime with "Priming composition #7".

Barium nitrate....................................65
Saran.............................................20
Red gum...........................................3
Sulfur............................................7
Aluminum (very fine)..............................10
Ammonium perchlorate..............................15
Boric acid........................................2
Dextrin...........................................2

Green star #7
Source: PML, post by Charley Wilson <cwilson@celsvr.stortek.com.
Comments: Beautiful green. Direct substitution of barium nitrate with strontium nitrate produces a nice red.
Preparation: Dissolve shellac in boiling ethanol. Prime with potassium perchlorate based strobe prime

ammonium perchlorate..............................50
barium nitrate....................................35
shellac...........................................15

Green star #8
Source: "The Pyroguide" (a document found on internet)
Comments:
Preparation: Bind with alcohol.

Barium chlorate...................................8
Lampblack.........................................1
Shellac powder....................................1

Green star #9
Source: "The Pyroguide" (a document found on internet)
Comments:
Preparation: Bind with alcohol.

Barium nitrate....................................3
Potassium chlorate................................4
Shellac powder....................................1
Dextrin...........................................1/4

Green star #10
Source: post on rec.pyrotechnics by Tommy Hakomaki <tommy.hakomaki@mailbox.swipnet.se. Composition from an old swedish book.
Comments:
Preparation:

Potassium nitrate.................................35
Sulfur............................................10
Mealpowder........................................40
Barium nitrate....................................50
Charcoal..........................................10

Green star #11
Source: rec.pyrotechnics, post by Bill Nelson <billn@peak.org, Composition from Davis[10].
Comments: This formulation is based on one given by Clark, who s work is suspect.
Preparation:

Potassium perchlorate.............................6
Barium perchlorate................................12
Aluminum..........................................8
Dextrin...........................................2
Shellac...........................................1

Green star #12
Source: rec.pyrotechnics,post by Bill Nelson <billn@peak.org, Composition from "Pyrotechnica VII"[3] by JW Stone.
Comments:
Preparation:

Potassium perchlorate.............................48
Barium nitrate....................................32
Red Gum...........................................14
Charcoal..........................................2
Parlon............................................12
Dextrin...........................................6
Sulfur............................................5

Green star #13
Source: rec.pyrotechnics,post by Bill Nelson <billn@peak.org, Composition from "Pyrotechnica VII"[3] by JW Stone.
Comments:
Preparation:

Potassium perchlorate.............................28
Barium nitrate....................................16
Red Gum...........................................4
Charcoal..........................................1
Parlon............................................10
Dextrin...........................................3
Aluminum #809.....................................5

Green star #14
Source: rec.pyrotechnics,post by Bill Nelson <billn@peak.org, Composition from "Pyrotechnica VII"[3] by T. Fish.
Comments:
Preparation:

Barium nitrate....................................65
Parlon............................................20
Pyro Aluminum.....................................10
Red gum or sulfur.................................5
Boric acid........................................+2

Green star #15
Source: PML, post by Bill Ofca <ofca@csbh.mhv.net
Comments: Original name: 'Emerald green'. The mix is not very sensitive although chlorates are present.
Preparation: Dampen with 75/25 water/alcohol and cut or roll into 10mm stars. The red gum can be replaced with shellac. If shellac is used, dampen with 50/50 water alcohol.

Potassium perchlorate.............................22
Barium chlorate...................................43
Barium nitrate....................................9
Red gum...........................................22
Dextrin...........................................4

Green star #16
Source: rec.pyrotechnics archive. Composition from Shimizu[1], page 218. It s listed under the name "Green star brilliant".
Comments:
Preparation: The magnesium must be coated with linseed oil. Use an acetone or alcohol solvable binder.

Potassium perchlorate.............................16
Barium nitrate....................................42
Magnesium, 60 mesh................................25
PVC...............................................15
Lampblack or Paulownia coal.......................2

Green star #17
Source: rec.pyrotechnics archive. Composition from Shimizu[1], page 219. It s listed under the name "Ammon green star brilliant".
Comments:
Preparation: The magnesium must be coated with potassium dichromate.

Ammonium perchlorate..............................41
Magnesium, 60 mesh................................33.3
Red gum...........................................9.5
Barium carbonate..................................9.5
Potassium bichromate..............................1.9
Soluble glutinous rice starch.....................4.8

Blue star #1
Source: rec.pyrotechnics archive, post by LNiksch <lniksch@aol.com Composition from Shimizu[1], page 216. Listed under the name "blue star II"
Comments: LNiksch :"These stars burn much faster and more blue than any mix containing copper carbonate I have tried"
Preparation: Dampen with alcohol/water 70/30 to make cut or pumped stars.

Potassium perchlorate.............................66.5
Red gum...........................................9.9
Cupric oxide......................................13.4
Parlon............................................5.4
Soluble Glutinous Rice Starch or Dextrin .........5.6 or 4.8

Blue star #2
Source:
Comments:
Preparation: Add 25 volume parts of water to dextrin and mix in the other ingredients. Use more water if necessary.

Ammonium perchlorate..............................60
Sulfur............................................17
Copper(II)oxide...................................20
Dextrin (binder)..................................3
Red gum or Shellac................................6

Blue star #3
Source:
Comments:
Preparation: Mix red gum or shellac powder with Parlon. Add 50 volume parts of acetone, mix well and mix in the other ingredients.

potassium perchlorate.............................63
copper(II)oxide...................................13
Red gum or Shellac (powdered).....................10
Parlon or PVC.....................................14

Blue star #4
Source:
Comments:
Preparation:

potassium perchlorate.............................65
cuprous chloride (CuCl)...........................16
sulfur............................................10
Red gum...........................................7
Parlon or PVC.....................................11 or 12

Blue star #5
Source:
Comments:
Preparation: Add the PVC solution to the other ingredients. Allow some THF to evaporate, form a cake 1 cm thick and allow it to dry on a plastic plate (check that it doesn't dissolve in THF!). Remove the dry cake and cut it into stars with a pair of scissors.

Ammonium perchlorate..............................63
Copper(II)oxide...................................13
Sulfur............................................10
Dextrin...........................................10
PVC...............................................12

Blue star #6
Source: "The Pyroguide" (a document found on internet)
Comments: Dangerous mixture since it contains both sulfur and a chlorate.
Preparation: Bind with dextrin in water.

Potassium chlorate................................9
Copper Acetonarsenite.............................2
Mercurous chloride................................1
Sulfur............................................2

Blue star #7
Source: "The Pyroguide" (a document found on internet)
Comments: This one is inferior to "Blue star 6". Dangerous mixture since it contains both sulfur and a chlorate.
Preparation: Bind with dextrin in water.

Potassium chlorate................................12
Copper sulfate....................................6
Lead chloride.....................................1
Sulfur............................................4

Blue star #8
Source: rec.pyrotechnics. Posted by Tommy Hakomaki <tommy.hakomaki@mailbox.swipnet.se
Comments:
Preparation:

Potassium nitrate.................................40
Sulfur............................................12
Mealpowder........................................40
Copper-ammonium nitrate...........................30
Charcoal..........................................10
Rosin.............................................5

Blue star #9
Source: Composition from Shimizu[1], page 216. Listed under the name 'blue star I'
Comments:
Preparation:

Potassium perchlorate.............................60.8
Red Gum...........................................9.0
Basic copper carbonate............................12.3
Parlon............................................13.1
Soluble glutinous rice starch.....................4.8

Blue star #10
Source: PML, posted by David Abate <daveab@ix.netcom.com.
Comments: Crackling stars can be made with this composition. The poster used large pistol primers (idea from Best of AFN II), coated with 70%KClO4/30% Dark aluminum for cores, and rolled these into stars with the star mixture. The stars were hard to ignite and needed priming. The color is a bit pale blue.
Preparation:

Potassium perchlorate.............................61
Copper carbonate..................................12
Parlon............................................13
Red gum...........................................9
Dextrin...........................................5

Blue star #11
Source: "Pyrotechnica #6"[3]
Comments: This composition seems just a slight modification of "Blue star #1".
Preparation:

Potassium perchlorate.............................67.3
Red gum...........................................10.0
Copper oxide......................................13.6
Parlon............................................9.1
Rice starch.......................................4.5

Blue star #12
Source: PML, posted by Charley Wilson <cwilson@celsvr.stortek.com
Comments:
Preparation:

Ammonium perchlorate..............................70
Copper(II)oxide...................................15
Shellac...........................................15

Blue star #13
Source: Greg Gallacci <psygreg@u.washington.edu
Comments: Makes a bright, robins-egg blue star, with a bushy flame.
Preparation:

Potassium perchlorate.............................70
Silicone..........................................10
Copper(II)oxide...................................10
PVC...............................................15

Blue star #14
Source: rec.pyrotechnics. Post by Erik D. Suni <esuni@lk-hp-26.hut.fi. Composition is a slightly modified version from a composition from "The best of AFN II"[14].
Comments:
Preparation: Moisten with water, and cut into 6 mm stars. Do not prime with meal powder. Use a potassium perchlorate based prime instead.

Potassium chlorate................................65
Copper oxychloride................................12.5
Lactose...........................................12.5
Dextrin...........................................5
Saran.............................................5

Blue star #15
Source: rec.pyrotechnics, post by Greg A. Gallacci <psygreg@u.washington.edu
Comments: Fimo is a PVC based modelling clay. The stars are brilliant blue ("Cop-lites blue"), with edges of flame tinted salmon. The stars need priming.
Preparation: Warm the Fimo slightly, to make it more mixable and mix it with the ammonium perchlorate without using solvents. Then mix in the malachite. Screen it several times and make pressed stars.

Ammonium perchlorate..............................70
Fimo..............................................20
Malachite, powdered...............................10

Blue star #16
Source: rec.pyrotechnics
Comments:
Preparation:

Potassium Perchlorate.............................60
Copper Carbonate..................................20
PVC...............................................15
Dextrin...........................................5

Purple star #1
Source: "The Pyroguide" (a document found on internet)
Comments: Dangerous mixture since it contains both sulfur and a chlorate.
Preparation: Bind with dextrin in water. The ingredients must be very pure.

Potassium chlorate................................36
Strontium sulfate.................................10
Copper sulfate....................................5
Lead chloride.....................................2
Charcoal..........................................2
Sulfur............................................12

Purple star #2
Source: "The Pyroguide" (a document found on internet)
Comments: Dangerous mixture since it contains both sulfur and a chlorate.
Preparation: Bind with dextrin in water. The ingredients must be very pure.

Potassium chlorate................................38
Strontium carbonate...............................18
Copper chloride...................................4
Lead chloride.....................................2
Sulfur............................................14

Purple star #3
Source: Composition from Shimizu[1], page 216. Listed under the name "Violet star I".
Comments:
Preparation:

Potassium perchlorate.............................61.3
Red gum...........................................9.1
Basic copper carbonate............................5.0
Strontium carbonate...............................7.4
Parlon............................................12.4
Soluble glutinous rice starch.....................4.8

Purple star #4
Source: Composition from Shimizu[1], page 216. Listed under the name "Violet star II" .
Comments:
Preparation:

Potassium perchlorate.............................64.0
Red gum...........................................9.5
Copper(II)oxide...................................5.2
Strontium carbonate...............................7.8
Parlon............................................8.7
Soluble glutinous rice starch.....................4.8

Yellow star #1
Source:
Comments:
Preparation: Mix dextrin with 4 volume parts of water and mix in the other ingredients.

Potassium chlorate................................6
Sodium hydrogen carbonate.........................2
Dextrin...........................................2

Yellow star #2
Source: "The Pyroguide" (a document found on internet)
Comments:
Preparation: Bind with shellac in ethanol or dextrin in water.

Potassium chlorate................................8
Sodium oxalate....................................3
Lampblack.........................................2

Yellow star #3
Source: "The Pyroguide" (a document found on internet)
Comments:
Preparation: Bind with alcohol.

Potassium chlorate................................8
Sodium oxalate....................................4
Shellac powder....................................2
Dextrin...........................................1

Yellow star #4
Source: rec.pyrotechnics, posted by Tommy Hakomaki <tommy.hakomaki@mailbox.swipnet.se.
Comments:
Preparation:

Potassium nitrate.................................48
Sulfur............................................24
Mealpowder........................................60
Charcoal..........................................10
Rosin.............................................2

Yellow star #5
Source: Composition from Shimizu[1], page 215.
Comments:
Preparation:

Potassium perchlorate.............................68
Red gum...........................................18
Lampblack.........................................2
Sodium nitrate....................................7
Soluble glutinous rice starch.....................5

Yellow star #6
Source: rec.pyrotechnics archive. Composition from Shimizu[1], page 217. It s listed under the name "Yellow star brilliant".
Comments:
Preparation: The magnesium must be coated with linseed oil. Use an acetone or alcohol solvable binder.

Potassium perchlorate.............................45
Ultramarine.......................................13
Magnesium, 60 mesh................................30
PVC...............................................10
Lampblack or Paulownia coal.......................2

Yellow star #7
Source: rec.pyrotechnics archive. Composition from Shimizu[1], page 219. It s listed under the name "Ammon yellow star brilliant".
Comments:
Preparation: The magnesium must be coated with potassium dichromate.

Ammonium perchlorate..............................41
Magnesium, 60 mesh................................33.3
Red gum...........................................9.5
Ultramarine.......................................9.5
Potassium bichromate..............................1.9
Soluble glutinous rice starch.....................4.8

Orange star #1
Source: "The Pyroguide" (a document found on internet)
Comments: Dangerous mixture since it contains both sulfur and a chlorate.
Preparation: Bind with alcohol.

Strontium nitrate.................................36
Sodium oxalate....................................8
Potassium chlorate................................5
Shellac powder....................................5
Sulfur............................................3

Orange/Red star
Source: rec.pyrotechnics archive. Posted by Greg Deputy <gdep@gemstar.gemstar.com
Comments: Sculpy is a PVC based modelling clay - "FIMO" will also work, but is more difficult to mix.
Preparation:

Strontium nitrate.................................35
Potassium perchlorate.............................40
"Sculpy"..........................................22
Fe2O3.............................................2

Salmon color star
Source: rec.pyrotechnics, post by Greg A. Gallacci <psygreg@u.washington.edu
Comments: Sculpy is a PVC based modelling clay. The result is a salmon-berry (reddish-orange) color.
Preparation: Warm the sculpy slightly, to make it more mixable and mix it with the ammonium perchlorate without using solvents. Screen it several times and make pressed stars. The stars can be baked in an oven at 135 C for 20 minutes, which will result in much harder, more ignitable, more intensely colored stars. Heating the stars is not recommended though, since it could cause the stars to ignite.

Ammonium perchlorate..............................75
"Super Sculpy"....................................25

White star #1
Source: rec.pyrotechnics
Comments:
Preparation:

Potassium Nitrate.................................58
Aluminum..........................................40
Dextrin...........................................2

White star #2
Source: rec.pyrotechnics
Comments:
Preparation:

Potassium Perchlorate.............................40
Magnesium.........................................32
Sulfur............................................16
Charcoal..........................................12

White star #3
Source: rec.pyrotechnics
Comments:
Preparation:

Potassium Perchlorate.............................2
Aluminum..........................................1

White star #4
Source: rec.pyrotechnics
Comments:
Preparation:

Barium Nitrate....................................53
Potassium Nitrate.................................12
Magnesium 100-200 mesh............................28
Parlon............................................7
Acetone...........................................qs
50/50 alcohol/water...............................qs

White star #5
Source: rec.pyrotechnics
Comments:
Preparation:

Barium or Strontium Nitrate.......................60
Magnesium.........................................20
PVC...............................................20

White star #6
Source: rec.pyrotechnics
Comments:
Preparation:

Potassium nitrate.................................59
Sulfur............................................30
Meal powder.......................................11

White star #7
Source: rec.pyrotechnics
Comments:
Preparation:

Potassium perchlorate.............................61
Aluminum..........................................31
Lycopodium........................................8

White star #8
Source: "The Pyroguide" (a document found on internet)
Comments: Bind with dextrin in water
Preparation:

Potassium nitrate.................................6
Sulfur............................................1
Antimony sulfide..................................2

White star #9
Source: rec.pyrotechnics, posted by Tommy Hakomaki <tommy.hakomaki@mailbox.swipnet.se.
Comments:
Preparation:

Potassium nitrate.................................42
Sulfur............................................18
Mealpowder........................................18

White star #10
Source: rec.pyrotechnics. Post by Erik D. Suni <esuni@lk-hp-26.hut.fi. Composition from "The best of AFN II"[14].
Comments: Meal powder priming should be sufficient.
Preparation:

Potassium nitrate.................................28
Antinony sulfide..................................6
Sulfur............................................8
Dextrin...........................................1.5

Brilliant white star
Source: "The Pyroguide" (a document found on internet)
Comments: Bind with dextrin in water
Preparation:

Potassium perchlorate.............................4
Aluminum dust.....................................4
Dextrin...........................................1

Orange star #2
Source: rec.pyrotechnics
Comments: These compositions are part of a matched set invented by Robert Veline. The compositions mix compatibly to produce a wide range of other colors. Examples are given below. The wood meal in the prime (see miscellaneous compositions) makes the stars a little 'fuzzy', making the stars much more easy to ignite. Without the wood meal prime the stars are often blown blind.
Preparation:

Potassium Perchlorate.............................75
Cryolite..........................................10
Shellac...........................................15

Yellow star #8
Source: rec.pyrotechnics
Comments: These compositions are part of a matched set invented by Robert Veline. The compositions mix compatibly to produce a wide range of other colors. Examples are given below. The wood meal in the prime (see miscellaneous compositions) makes the stars a little 'fuzzy', making the stars much more easy to ignite. Without the wood meal prime the stars are often blown blind.
Preparation:

Potassium Perchlorate.............................70
Cryolite..........................................10
PVC...............................................10
Shellac...........................................10

Veline's red star
Source: rec. pyrotechnics, post by Lloyd E. Sponenburgh <lloyds@fiscalinfo.com. This set of compositions was invented by Robert Veline and is used in Kosankie's 'Chemistry of Fireworks (Chemistry of color) class'.
Comments: These compositions are part of a matched set invented by Robert Veline. The compositions mix compatibly to produce a wide range of other colors. Examples are given below. The wood meal in the prime (see miscellaneous compositions) makes the stars a little 'fuzzy', making the stars much more easy to ignite. Without the wood meal prime the stars are often blown blind.
Preparation: Summary of Robert Veline's own comments: "Potassium perchlorate is a fine powder. Parlon is Hercules brand or Superchlon brand from Ishihara co. ltd. Red gum is a fine powder. Copper(II)oxide may be substituted by copper carbonate without much change in performance. Calcium carbonate is 200 mesh, 'Whiting'. More pure forms slow the burn rate and degrade the color."

Potassium perchlorate.............................55
Strontium carbonate...............................15
Parlon............................................15
Red gum...........................................9
Magnalium (50/50), 200 mesh.......................6
Dextrin...........................................+4

Veline's orange star
Source: rec. pyrotechnics, post by Lloyd E. Sponenburgh <lloyds@fiscalinfo.com. This set of compositions was invented by Robert Veline and is used in Kosankie's 'Chemistry of Fireworks (Chemistry of color) class'.
Comments: These compositions are part of a matched set invented by Robert Veline. The compositions mix compatibly to produce a wide range of other colors. Examples are given below. The wood meal in the prime (see miscellaneous compositions) makes the stars a little 'fuzzy', making the stars much more easy to ignite. Without the wood meal prime the stars are often blown blind.
Preparation: Summary of Robert Veline's own comments: "Potassium perchlorate is a fine powder. Parlon is Hercules brand or Superchlon brand from Ishihara co. ltd. Red gum is a fine powder. Copper(II)oxide may be substituted by copper carbonate without much change in performance. Calcium carbonate is 200 mesh, 'Whiting'. More pure forms slow the burn rate and degrade the color."

Potassium perchlorate.............................55
Calcium carbonate.................................15
Parlon............................................15
Red gum...........................................9
Magnalium (50/50), 200 mesh.......................6
Dextrin...........................................+4

Veline's green star
Source: rec. pyrotechnics, post by Lloyd E. Sponenburgh <lloyds@fiscalinfo.com. This set of compositions was invented by Robert Veline and is used in Kosankie's 'Chemistry of Fireworks (Chemistry of color) class'.
Comments: These compositions are part of a matched set invented by Robert Veline. The compositions mix compatibly to produce a wide range of other colors. Examples are given below. The wood meal in the prime (see miscellaneous compositions) makes the stars a little 'fuzzy', making the stars much more easy to ignite. Without the wood meal prime the stars are often blown blind.
Preparation: Summary of Robert Veline's own comments: "Potassium perchlorate is a fine powder. Parlon is Hercules brand or Superchlon brand from Ishihara co. ltd. Red gum is a fine powder. Copper(II)oxide may be substituted by copper carbonate without much change in performance. Calcium carbonate is 200 mesh, 'Whiting'. More pure forms slow the burn rate and degrade the color."

Potassium perchlorate.............................30
Barium nitrate....................................24
Barium carbonate..................................15
Parlon............................................15
Red gum...........................................5
Magnalium (50/50), 200 mesh.......................11
Dextrin...........................................+4

Veline's blue star
Source: rec. pyrotechnics, post by Lloyd E. Sponenburgh <lloyds@fiscalinfo.com. This set of compositions was invented by Robert Veline and is used in Kosankie's 'Chemistry of Fireworks (Chemistry of color) class'.
Comments: These compositions are part of a matched set invented by Robert Veline. The compositions mix compatibly to produce a wide range of other colors. Examples are given below. The wood meal in the prime (see miscellaneous compositions) makes the stars a little 'fuzzy', making the stars much more easy to ignite. Without the wood meal prime the stars are often blown blind.
Preparation: Summary of Robert Veline's own comments: "Potassium perchlorate is a fine powder. Parlon is Hercules brand or Superchlon brand from Ishihara co. ltd. Red gum is a fine powder. Copper(II)oxide may be substituted by copper carbonate without much change in performance. Calcium carbonate is 200 mesh, 'Whiting'. More pure forms slow the burn rate and degrade the color."

Potassium perchlorate.............................55
Copper(II)oxide...................................15
Parlon............................................15
Red gum...........................................9
Magnalium (50/50), 200 mesh.......................6
Dextrin...........................................+4

Veline's mixed colors
Source: rec. pyrotechnics, post by Lloyd E. Sponenburgh <lloyds@fiscalinfo.com.
Comments: These are a few examples of the colors that can be obtained by mixing a few of Robert Veline's set of star compositions.
Preparation:

Yellow............................................55 green, 45 orange
Chartreuse........................................80 green, 20 orange
Aqua..............................................80 green,20 blue
Turquoise.........................................55 green, 45 blue
Magenta...........................................50 red, 50 blue
Maroon............................................85 red, 15 blue
Peach.............................................60 orange, 25 red, 15 blue
Purple............................................5 orange, 15 red, 80 blue

White flare star
Source: "Vuurwerk door de eeuwen heen"[11]
Comments: Dangerous mixture since it contains both sulfur and a chlorate.
Preparation: Wet with solution of shellac in ethanol. 20g Shellac per liter of ethanol.

Potassium nitrate.................................165
Sulfur............................................31
Barium nitrate....................................455
Barium chlorate...................................31
Magnesium powder..................................18
Aluminum medium course............................5
Aluminum fine.....................................25

Gold flitter star
Source:
Comments: The particle sizes of aluminum powders will markedly affect the result. If Al bronze is available, you can use all 16 parts of it instead of the two different Al powders.
Preparation: Add water and proceed as usual.

Potassium nitrate, fine...........................16
Sulfur............................................3
Charcoal, powdered................................2
Sodium oxalate or Ultramarine.....................4 or 2
Fine, grey aluminum powder (preferably pyro Aluminum).....11
Flake Aluminum or medium Al powder (Al bronze works well).....5
Dextrin...........................................4

Zinc spreader star #1
Source: "The Pyroguide" (a document found on internet)
Comments: The stars spread pieces of burning zinc and charcoal. These stars are much heavier than usual, and require larger lifter charges if they're to be fired from a tube.
Preparation: Bind with water.

Zinc dust.........................................72
Potassium chlorate................................15
Potassium dichromate..............................12
Granular charcoal.................................12
Dextrin...........................................2

Zinc spreader star #2
Source: "The Pyroguide" (a document found on internet)
Comments:
Preparation: Bind with dextrin in water.

Potassium nitrate.................................14
Zinc dust.........................................40
Charcoal..........................................7
Sulfur............................................4

Zinc spreader star #3
Source: "The Pyroguide" (a document found on internet)
Comments: Bind with dextrin in water.
Preparation:

Potassium chlorate................................5
Potassium dichromate..............................4
Charcoal, medium..................................4
Zinc dust.........................................24

Willow tree star
Source: "The Pyroguide" (a document found on internet)
Comments: Dangerous mixture since it contains both sulfur and a chlorate.
Preparation: Bind with dextrin in water.

Potassium chlorate................................10
Potassium nitrate.................................5
Sulfur............................................1
Lampblack.........................................18

Soft willow lampblack star
Source: "Mesquite charcoal" from Tom Perigrin s homepage.
Comments:
Preparation: Use a meal powder prime. 1 part shellac can be used instead of 5 parts, burning time will be reduced by 2 sec. Standard willow method: mix the components, wet with alcohol/water screen pulverone style, dry, mill for 3 hours then make cut stars. Adding extra charcoal might slow the burn, giving a better tail.

Charcoal..........................................25
Dextrin...........................................5
Potassium nitrate.................................10
Potassium perchlorate.............................30
Lampblack.........................................30
Shellac...........................................5

Lampblack willow star
Source: PML, post by Bill Ofca <ofca@csbh.mhv.net
Comments:
Preparation: Dampen with 50/50 water/alcohol as it is rolled over a (chlorate) core star or stars containing NO sulfur or sulfur compounds. It helps to slightly dampen the lampblack with pure alcohol before it is mixed with the other dry ingredients. Once thoroughly mixed, it should still flow as a powder, or too much alcohol was used. If that happens, allow it to evaporate for awhile until it can be sprinkled on the rolling stars.

Lampblack.........................................12
Potassium chlorate................................8
Potassium nitrate.................................1
Dextrin...........................................1

Silver shower star #1
Source:
Comments:
Preparation: Add water and proceed as usual. The particle size and surface area of the reactants has a profound effect on the results.

Potassium nitrate.................................35
Fine charcoal.....................................8
Boric acid........................................2
Sulfur............................................7
Potassium perchlorate.............................60
Fine pyro Aluminum (atomised Aluminum, 0.1 mm)....20
Fine flake aluminum (Al bronze)...................25
Coarse flake Aluminum.............................15
Dextrin...........................................10

Silver shower star #2
Source: PML, post by Charley Wilson <cwilson@celsvr.stortek.com.
Comments: The particle size of the aluminum is not very critical.
Preparation: Dissolve shellac in boiling ethanol, mix in the other ingredients and proceed as usual. Shellac stars take a long time to dry; try drying in the sun. Prime with a perchlorate based strobe prime.

Ammonium perchlorate..............................65
Fine aluminum powder or flake aluminum (not too coarse).....22
Shellac...........................................18

Silver shower star #3
Source:
Comments:
Preparation: Add water and proceed as usual.

Flitter Aluminum (or any grade except the finest pyro grades).....15
Potassium nitrate.................................55
Boric acid........................................2
Fine charcoal.....................................10
Dextrin...........................................5

Electric star #1
Source: "The Pyroguide" (a document found on internet)
Comments:
Preparation: Bind with dextrin in water.

Potassium nitrate.................................15
Aluminum, fine....................................2
Aluminum, medium..................................1
Black powder......................................2
Antimony sulfide..................................3
Sulfur............................................4

Electric star #2
Source: "The Pyroguide" (a document found on internet)
Comments:
Preparation: Bind with red gum in water.

Potassium chlorate................................60
Barium nitrate....................................5
Aluminum, fine....................................9
Aluminum, medium..................................4
Aluminum, coarse..................................3
Charcoal..........................................2
Dextrin...........................................5

Electric star #3
Source: "The Pyroguide" (a document found on internet)
Comments:
Preparation: Bind with shellac in alcohol.

Potassium perchlorate.............................6
Barium nitrate....................................1
Aluminum..........................................20
Dextrin...........................................1

Electric star #4
Source: "The Pyroguide" (a document found on internet)
Comments:
Preparation: Bind with shellac in alcohol.

Potassium perchlorate.............................4
Aluminum, medium..................................2
Dextrin...........................................1

Firefly #1
Source: rec.pyrotechnics archive. Posted by Eric Eisack.
Comments:
Preparation: Aluminum is large flake. It was sieved through a windowscreen. This gives about 30 mesh powder.

Potassium nitrate.................................50
Charcoal,air float................................29
Charcoal, 80 mesh.................................10.5
Sulfur............................................6
Aluminum (large flake)............................4.5
Dextrin or CMC....................................+5 or +1

Firefly #2
Source: rec.pyrotechnics archive. Posted by Dan Bucciano.
Comments: Can also be used as rocket propellant: Mix the chemicals, dampen, and granulate through a 20 mesh screen and dry. Use +3% by weight as a tail effect. Once you have passed the top core of the rocket by 1/2 inch, you may ram 100% firefly formula the rest of the way. You will end up with a beautiful long trailing tail of firefly.
Preparation:

Potassium Nitrate.................................47
Air Float Charcoal................................33
Antimony tri-sulfide..............................5.8
Aluminum (400 mesh,12 micron, spherical)..........4.2
Sulfur............................................4.7
Dextrin...........................................5.2

Firefly #3
Source: PML Digest 391, post by L.Niksch <LNiksch@aol.com. This formula is provided with the "firefly aluminum" from Skylighter.
Comments:
Preparation: Ball mill potassium nitrate, Air Float charcoal, sulfur and Dextrin together for 1 hour. Then add the 36 mesh Charcoal and firefly aluminum and mix with a spoon. Add water to make a dough mix and cut with a knife into 3/8" cut stars. Separate stars and dry for 3-4 days. The effect is a long tiger tail going up and firefly sparkles coming down. Larger stars take longer to dry, and a damp star produces very little firefly effect.

Potassium nitrate.................................49
Charcoal, air float...............................29
Charcoal, 36 Mesh.................................11
Sulfur............................................9
Dextrin...........................................10
Aluminum, firefly.................................5

Glitter star
Source: rec.pyrotechnics archive, post by Tommy Hakomaki <tommy.hakomaki@mailbox.swipnet.se
Comments:
Preparation: Wet with ethanol/water (70/30)

Potassium nitrate.................................55
Aluminum 200-400 mesh.............................5
Dextrin...........................................4
Antimony(III)sulfide..............................16
Sulfur............................................10
Lampblack.........................................10

Red Pill Box star
Source: rec.pyrotechnics archive. Composition from Lancaster[2]
Comments:
Preparation:

Potassium chlorate................................64
Strontium carbonate...............................19
Red gum...........................................13
Dextrin...........................................4

Sparkler star
Source: rec.pyrotechnics archive.
Comments: Use course aluminum, fine aluminum will only result in a flash.
Preparation:

Potassium perchlorate.............................60
Aluminum, course..................................30
Dextrin...........................................10

White flitter star
Source: Tom s Perigrin's homepage. Composition from Weingart[5].
Comments:
Preparation:

Potassium nitrate.................................17
Sulfur............................................3
Charcoal..........................................3
Aluminum, course..................................4
Aluminum flake, fine..............................10
Dextrin...........................................1

White comet #1
Source: rec.pyrotechnics
Comments:
Preparation:

Potassium nitrate.................................96
Fine charcoal.....................................44
Sulfur............................................15
Dextrin...........................................10

White comet #2
Source: rec.pyrotechnics
Comments:
Preparation:

Potassium nitrate.................................40
Fine charcoal.....................................24
Sulfur............................................8
Dextrin...........................................9

'Dragon eggs' star (Crackling star)
Source: rec.pyrotechnics. Composition from "The best of AFN III"[12], page 121
Comments: Sometimes, Bi2O3 is used instead of Pb3O4. The composition is extremely sensitive, both to friction and impact. It is also quite poisonous and explosive. Gloves and an air mask must be worn at all times when handling this mixture since the mixture contains the very toxic Pb3O4.
Preparation: Add lacquer untill the thickness is like wood putty. Pass the mix through a screen and dry it to make 1mm squares. These will explode with a sharp crack shortly after lighting and can be used as star cores.

Pb3O4.............................................81.8
Magnalium (50/50, 100-200 Mesh)...................9.1
Copper(II)oxide...................................9.1
Nitrocellulose lacquer binder.....................10% by volume

Blue star with charcoal tail
Source: rec.pyrotechnics, posted by sweden <sweden@synchron.ct.se. Source of this composition is Bruce Snowden
Comments:
Preparation: Add isopropyl alcohol for binding. Cut, round and pumped stars can be made with this composition, but a typical KClO4/Red gum/Charcoal/dextrin prime will be necessary. A final layer of sodium nitrate/sulfur/Charcoal (85/5/10), moistened with NC/acetone lacker (w. about 3% NC) can be added. This adds yellowish sparks. Mealpowder can be used instead if the yellow sparks are not desired.

Ammonium perchlorate..............................70
Basic copper carbonate............................10
Red Gum...........................................10
Charcoal..........................................10
Dextrin...........................................+5

Electric purple star
Source: Quoted in an AFN Yearbook from David Bleser on "Protecting Electric Puple Decomposition"
Comments: When very fine powdered ammonium perchlorate was used in a an attempt to try to increase the burning rate of stars an ammoniacal smell and an increase in temperature was noticed. The batch of stars was safely disposed of. By adding 5% potassium dichromate and 1% boric acid the reactions were prevented.
Preparation:

Ammonium perchlorate..............................68
Copper benzoate...................................8
Strontium carbonate...............................12
Magnalium (200-400 Mesh)..........................5
Hexamine..........................................7
Dextrin...........................................+5

Brilliant core
Source: Composition from Shimizu[1], page 219.
Comments: This composition can be used for the cores of round stars. It gives a strong flash of light. The cores burn quickly and are self propelled when they are unevenly ignited. To prevent that, these cores should be coated with 'Brilliant core prime' (see miscellaneous compositions) untill they are round.
Preparation:

Barium nitrate....................................66
Aluminum, fine flake..............................27
Boric acid........................................1
Soluble glutinous rice starch.....................6

Silver star core
Source: Composition from Shimizu[1], page 220.
Comments: This composition can be used for the cores of round stars. It burns less quickly than the brilliant core , and produces a silver flame.
Preparation:

Potassium perchlorate.............................56
Rosin (BL combustion agent).......................5
Aluminum (fine flake).............................32
Lampblack.........................................2
Soluble glutinous rice starch.....................5

Silver wave
Source: Composition from Shimizu[1], page 220.
Comments: This composition produces a silver fire dust. A large silver fire dust flame of short duration is obtained. When the ratio perchlorate to aluminum is changed to 35/65 a small flame with yellowish fire dust of long duration is obtained.
Preparation:

Potassium perchlorate.............................50
Aluminum (somewhat coarse flake)..................50
Soluble glutinous rice starch.....................+5%

Golden wave #1
Source: Composition from Shimizu[1], page 221
Comments:
Preparation:

Potassium nitrate.................................37
Aluminum (somewhat coarse flake)..................47
Antimony trisulfide...............................9
Boric acid........................................1
Soluble glutinous rice starch.....................6

Golden wave #2
Source: Composition from Shimizu[1], page 221.
Comments:
Preparation:

Potassium nitrate.................................37
Aluminum (somewhat coarse flake)..................47
Sulfur............................................9
Boric acid........................................1
Soluble glutinous rice starch.....................6

Golden wave #3
Source: Composition from Shimizu[1], page 221.
Comments: A somewhat reddish gold effect is obtained with this composition.
Preparation:

Potassium nitrate.................................37
Aluminum (somewhat coarse flake)..................47
Realgar...........................................9
Boric acid........................................1
Soluble glutinous rice starch.....................6

Golden chrysanthemum
Source: Composition from Shimizu[1], page 221.
Comments: This produces a brilliant yellow fire dust.
Preparation:

Potassium nitrate.................................40
Aluminum (somewhat coarse flake)..................30
Sulfur............................................10
Realgar...........................................10
Hemp coal (or pauownia coal)......................2
Boric acid........................................1
Soluble glutinous rice starch.....................7

Charcoal fire dust #1
Source: Composition from Shimizu[1], page 221. Listed under the name "Chrysanthemum 6". The 6 in that name comes from the ratio of charcoal to potassium nitrate, which is 6:10.
Comments: A reddish fire dust is obtained, which is relatively shortlived. When willow charcoal is used instead of pine, long lived fire dust is obtained.
Preparation: To obtain the fire dust, the potassium nitrate must be soaked into the charcoal. Hence a wet proces must be used for mixing.

Potassium nitrate.................................55
Sulfur............................................7
Pine charcoal.....................................33
Soluble glutinous rice starch.....................5

Charcoal fire dust #2
Source: Composition from Shimizu[1], page 221. Listed under the name "Chrysanthemum 8". The 8 in that name comes from the ratio of charcoal to potassium nitrate, which is 8:10.
Comments: A reddish fire dust is obtained, which is relatively shortlived. When willow charcoal is used instead of pine, long lived fire dust is obtained.
Preparation: To obtain the fire dust, the potassium nitrate must be soaked into the charcoal. Hence a wet proces must be used for mixing.

Preparation: Potassium nitrate....................49
Sulfur............................................6
Pine charcoal.....................................40
Soluble glutinous rice starch.....................5

Charcoal fire dust #3
Source: Composition from Shimizu[1], page 221. Listed under the name "Chrysanthemum of mystery".
Comments: A weak fire dust is obtained since the composition contains no sulfur. It creates a different and lonely effect.
Preparation: To obtain the fire dust, the potassium nitrate must be soaked into the charcoal. Hence a wet proces must be used for mixing.

Potassium nitrate.................................45
Pine charcoal.....................................50
Soluble glutinous rice starch.....................5

Charcoal fire dust #4
Source: Composition from Shimizu[1], page 221. Listed under the name "Tiger tail".
Comments:
Preparation: To obtain the fire dust, the potassium nitrate must be soaked into the charcoal. Hence a wet proces must be used for mixing.

Potassium nitrate.................................44
Sulfur............................................6
Pine charcoal.....................................44
Soluble glutinous rice starch.....................6

Charcoal fire dust #5
Source: Composition from Shimizu[1], page 221. Listed under the name "Willow".
Comments:
Preparation: To obtain the fire dust, the potassium nitrate must be soaked into the charcoal. Hence a wet proces must be used for mixing.

Potassium nitrate.................................35
Sulfur............................................12
Pine charcoal.....................................45
Soluble glutinous rice starch.....................8

Silver wave chrysanthemum
Source: Composition from Shimizu[1], page 222.
Comments: A fire dust with sparks from the metal powder is obtained. It looks as if red, yellow and green twinkling fire particles were mixed together.
Preparation: The potassium nitrate, sulfur and pine charcoal are previously mixed densily as in the manufacture of black powder.

Potassium nitrate.................................50
Sulfur............................................17.5
Pine charcoal.....................................7.5
Aluminum (somewhat coarse flake)..................7.5
Magnalium.........................................1.5
Antimony trisulfude...............................2.5
Realgar...........................................7.5
Soluble glutinous rice starch.....................6.0

Metal fire dust No.32
Source: Composition from Shimizu[1], page 221. Listed under the name "Winokur s compositions". They originated from "The pyrotechnic phenomenon of glitter" by R. M. Winokur from Pyrotechnica No 2, february 1978
Comments:
Preparation:

Potassium nitrate.................................38
Sulfur............................................13
Charcoal..........................................10
Barium nitrate....................................14
Aluminum, Atomized................................12
Red Iron Oxide, Fe2O3.............................8
Dextrin...........................................5

Metal fire dust No.33
Source: Composition from Shimizu[1], page 221. Listed under the name "Winokur s compositions". They originated from "The pyrotechnic phenomenon of glitter" by R. M. Winokur from Pyrotechnica No 2, february 1978
Comments:
Preparation:

Potassium nitrate.................................43
Sulfur............................................10
Charcoal..........................................10
Barium nitrate....................................13
Aluminum, Atomized................................13
Red Iron Oxide, Fe2O3.............................7
Dextrin...........................................4

Metal fire dust No.34
Source: Composition from Shimizu[1], page 221. Listed under the name "Winokur s compositions". They originated from "The pyrotechnic phenomenon of glitter" by R. M. Winokur from Pyrotechnica No 2, february 1978
Comments:
Preparation:

Potassium nitrate.................................40
Sulfur............................................10
Charcoal..........................................10
Barium nitrate....................................16
Aluminum, Atomized................................12
Red Iron Oxide, Fe2O3.............................7
Dextrin...........................................5

Metal fire dust No.35
Source: Composition from Shimizu[1], page 221. Listed under the name "Winokur s compositions". They originated from "The pyrotechnic phenomenon of glitter" by R. M. Winokur from Pyrotechnica No 2, february 1978
Comments:
Preparation:

Potassium nitrate.................................36
Sulfur............................................13
Charcoal..........................................10
Barium nitrate....................................16
Aluminum, Atomized................................12
Red Iron Oxide, Fe2O3.............................8
Dextrin...........................................5

Metal fire dust No.38
Source: Composition from Shimizu[1], page 221. Listed under the name "Winokur s compositions". They originated from "The pyrotechnic phenomenon of glitter" by R. M. Winokur from Pyrotechnica No 2, february 1978
Comments:
Preparation:

Potassium nitrate.................................40
Sulfur............................................12
Charcoal..........................................12
Barium nitrate....................................13
Aluminum, Atomized................................12
Red Iron Oxide, Fe2O3.............................7
Dextrin...........................................4

Matrix comet composition #1
Source: PML 8 oct 96, post by Myke Stanbridge <mykestan@cleo.murdoch.edu.au
Comments: A matrix comet consists of a matrix composition in which colored microstars are embedded. It produces a colored tail when fired. The microstars must be slow-burning while the matrix must be very fast burning. The matrix must either emit as little light as possible or a lot of light in a color that is compatible with the color of the microstars. The following green matrix composition from c1995 is a good starting point for further experimentation.
Preparation: Exfoliated mica is also called Vermiculite. It is usually obtained from 'mineral products' suppliers in graded sizes from around 5 to 10 millimetres. It requires comminution in a coffee mill, followed by screening. The guar binder, although very effective in low amounts, has a very slow drying profile and a tendency to produce a 'skin' that prevents 'radiant heat source' drying. To dry the comets uniformly requires a fan circulated 'dry air' drier. Large 3" comets might take two months to dry properly depending on the circumstances.

Potasium chlorate, passing 200 mesh...............50
Barium benzoate, passing 100 mesh.................23
Barium carbonate, passing 200 mesh................10
Exfoliated mica, pass 80 mesh, hold 120 mesh......10
Bentonite clay - wyoming, passing 200 mesh........6
Guar gum fine WW250F, passing 200 mesh............1

Matrix comet composition #2
Source: PML 8 oct 96, post by Myke Stanbridge <mykestan@cleo.murdoch.edu.au
Comments: A matrix comet consists of a matrix composition in which colored microstars are embedded. It produces a colored tail when fired. The microstars must be slow-burning while the matrix must be very fast burning. The matrix must either emit as little light as possible or a lot of light in a color that is compatible with the color of the microstars. The following green matrix composition from c1995 is a good starting point for further experimentation.
Preparation: Exfoliated mica is also called Vermiculite. It is usually obtained from 'mineral products' suppliers in graded sizes from around 5 to 10 millimetres. It requires comminution in a coffee mill, followed by screening. The guar binder, although very effective in low amounts, has a very slow drying profile and a tendency to produce a 'skin' that prevents 'radiant heat source' drying. To dry the comets uniformly requires a fan circulated 'dry air' drier. Large 3" comets might take two months to dry properly depending on the circumstances.

Potasium perchlorate, passing 100 mesh............50
Zirconium silicate, passing 325 mesh..............30
Polykarbenite-3 - Armex, passing 200 mesh.........10
Barium carbonate, passing 200 mesh................9
Guar gum fine WW250F, passing 200 mesh............1

Twinkling green star #1
Source: rec.pyrotechnics, posted by Bill Nelson <billn@peak.org, from "Pyrotechnica VII"[3] by T. Fish
Comments: Magnesium reacts slowly with ammonium perchlorate producing ammonia and magnesium perchlorate, especially in the presence of moisture. Thus, the twinklers cannot be stored for more than 6 months, and they must be kept in a closed bag. During the smoulder phase, magnesium reacts with ammonium perchlorate in the dark. In the flash phase, magnesium reacts with barium sulfate, producing hot MgO and creating a green flame. The flash is followed by another cycle, since the flash rapidly consumes the reactants in the flash zone.
Preparation: 1) Binder solution: Dissolve 3 parts of nitrocellulose (smokeless powder or celluloid film) into 30 parts (w/v) of boiling acetone. If you're going to prepare these stars more than once, prepare more of the solution, since nitrocellulose dissolves slowly even in refluxing acetone. Approx. 30 parts of the solution (v/w) is used each time. Nitrocellulose is used as a binder, since other binders tend to interfere with the twinkling. 2) Mix the ingredients into the binder solution in the order they appear here. Proceed as usual. Note that acetone evaporates very rapidly and the stars usually dry within a few hours.

Magnesium powder (any lab grade powder)...........23
Ammonium perchlorate..............................60
Barium sulfate....................................17

Twinkling green star #2
Source: Composition from Shimizu[1], page 224. Listed as "Twinklers of the ammonium perchlorate base, green"
Comments: Frequenty: 3.1 Hz.
Preparation: Add 25 parts 10% nitrocellulose solution in acetone to 100 parts of the composition, and make cut stars. Roll these stars in "priming composition #8", using the same NC paste until stars are round. Add a final layer of black powder in NC paste to ensure ignition.

Magnesium, 60 mesh (treated with potassium bichromate).....23
Ammonium perchlorate..............................60
Barium sulfate....................................17
Potassium dichromate (as a stabilizer)............+5%

Twinkling green star #3
Source: Composition from Shimizu[1], page 225. Listed as "Twinklers of the nitrate base, green"
Comments:
Preparation: Add 25 parts 10% nitrocellulose solution in acetone to 100 parts of the composition, and make cut stars. Roll these stars in "priming composition #8", using the same NC paste until stars are round. Add a final layer of black powder in NC paste to ensure ignition.

Magnalium.........................................18 (coated with linseed oil) Barium nitrate[40
BHC (Benzene hexachloride)........................5
Sulfur............................................30
Antimony trisulfide...............................7
Twinkling red star Class:10.....................50

Twinkling red star
Source: PML 383, composition comes from a post to rec.pyrotechnics by Myke Stanbridge <mykestan@cleo.murdoch.edu.au in '95
Comments:
Preparation: Magnesium was treated with cold 10% w/w K2Cr2O7 in deionised water for 2 hours.

Ammonium perchlorate, 100 mesh....................50
Magnesium metal, 120 mesh.........................23
Strontium sulfate, 100 mesh.......................18
Genchlor GC 700-200, 160 mesh.....................2
Winchester DB-231 as grain pwd....................7
Acetone, water free technical.....................+20% (w/w)

Twinkling white star #1
Source: PML, posted by Harry Galliam <HEGilliam@aol.com. Composition from Bleser[13], page 22. Listed as "formulation #26; white strobe".
Comments:
Preparation: The magnalium needs to be treated with potassium dichromate before mixing.

Barium nitrate....................................51
Sulfur............................................19
Magnalium, 100 Mesh...............................18
Potassium nitrate.................................7
Dextrin...........................................5

Twinkling white star #2
Source: Composition from Shimizu[1], page 224. Listed as "Twinklers of the ammonium perchlorate base, white"
Comments: Frequenty: 9.7 Hz.
Preparation: Add 25 parts 10% nitrocellulose solution in acetone to 100 parts of the composition, and make cut stars. Roll these stars in "priming composition #8", using the same NC paste until stars are round. Add a final layer of black powder in NC paste to ensure ignition.

Magnalium, 80 mesh (treated with potassium bichromate).....25
Ammonium perchlorate..............................60
Barium sulfate....................................15
Potassium dichromate (as a stabilizer)............+5%

Twinkling red star
Source: Composition from Shimizu[1], page 224. Listed as "Twinklers of the ammonium perchlorate base, red"
Comments: Frequenty: 3.5 Hz.
Preparation: Add 25 parts 10% nitrocellulose solution in acetone to 100 parts of the composition, and make cut stars. Roll these stars in "priming composition #8", using the same NC paste until stars are round. Add a final layer of black powder in NC paste to ensure ignition.

Magnesium, 60 mesh (treated with potassium bichromate).....30
Ammonium perchlorate..............................50
Strontium sulfate.................................20
Potassium dichromate (as a stabilizer)............+5%

Twinkling orange star
Source: Composition from Shimizu[1], page 224. Listed as "Twinklers of the ammonium perchlorate base, orange"
Comments: Frequenty: 6.9 Hz.
Preparation: Add 25 parts 10% nitrocellulose solution in acetone to 100 parts of the composition, and make cut stars. Roll these stars in "priming composition #8", using the same NC paste until stars are round. Add a final layer of black powder in NC paste to ensure ignition.

Magnesium, 60 mesh (treated with potassium bichromate).....30
Ammonium perchlorate..............................60
Calcium sulfate...................................10
Potassium dichromate (as a stabilizer)............+5%

Twinkling yellow star #1
Source: Composition from Shimizu[1], page 224. Listed as "Twinklers of the ammonium perchlorate base, yellow"
Comments: Frequenty: 3.5 Hz.
Preparation: Add 25 parts 10% nitrocellulose solution in acetone to 100 parts of the composition, and make cut stars. Roll these stars in "priming composition #8", using the same NC paste until stars are round. Add a final layer of black powder in NC paste to ensure ignition.

Magnesium, 60 mesh (treated with potassium bichromate).....40
Ammonium perchlorate..............................50
Sodium sulfate....................................10
Potassium dichromate (as a stabilizer)............+5%

Twinkling yellow star #2
Source: Composition from Shimizu[1], page 225. Listed as "Twinklers of the nitrate base, yellow"
Comments:
Preparation: Add 25 parts 10% nitrocellulose solution in acetone to 100 parts of the composition, and make cut stars. Roll these stars in "priming composition #8", using the same NC paste until stars are round. Add a final layer of black powder in NC paste to ensure ignition.

Magnalium (coated with linseed oil)...............12
Barium nitrate....................................33
Potassium nitrate.................................7
BHC (Benzene hexachloride)........................11
Sulfur............................................27
Antimony trisulfide...............................5
Sodium oxalate....................................5

Twinkling blue star
Source: Composition in handwriting in the copy of Shimizu[1], present in the library of the Technical University of Delft.
Comments:
Preparation: Add 25 parts 10% nitrocellulose solution in acetone to 100 parts of the composition, and make cut stars. Roll these stars in "priming composition #8", using the same NC paste until stars are round. Add a final layer of black powder in NC paste to ensure ignition.

Magnesium, 60 mesh (treated with potassium bichromate).....23
Ammonium perchlorate..............................60
Copper sulfate....................................17
Potassium dichromate (as a stabilizer)............+5%

Golden twinkler star
Source: "The Pyroguide" (a document found on internet)
Comments: Bind with water. The stars fall through the air and burn in an "on and off" manner. The effect is spectacular.
Preparation: The stars must be pumped or cut.

Potassium nitrate.................................18
Sulfur............................................3
Lampblack.........................................3
Aluminum..........................................3
Antimony sulfide..................................3
Sodium oxalate....................................4

Red, organically fuelled stars
 

 

Shimizu 

Bleser 

Bleser 

McLain Keystone 

Lancaster

Lancaster 

Lancaster

Potassium chlorate

 

 

38

 

70

 

64

Potassium perchlorate 

66

70

 

69

 

70

 

Strontium nitrate

 

 

38

 

 

 

 

Red gum

13

10

6

12

10

9

13

Strontium carbonate 

12

15

 

8

15

15

19

Charcoal 

 

1

12

6

1

2

 

Lampblack 

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

PVC

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hexachlorobenzene

 

 

2

 

 

 

 

Dextrin

5

4

4

5

4

4

4

type

cut, rolled 

cut, rolled 

cut, rolled 

cut, rolled

pumped

cut

pill box

solvent

25% alcohol 

35% alcohol 

35% alcohol 

25% alcohol 

25% alcohol 

25% alcohol 

25% alcohol 

 

Red, metallic fuelled stars
 

 

Lancaster 

Lancaster 

Lancaster 

Veline 

Potassium perchlorate

70

 

9

55

Strontium nitrate 

 

55

42

 

Strontium carbonate

12

 

 

15

Magnesium

 

28

30

 

Magnalium -200 mesh 

 

 

 

6

PVC

 

17

12

 

Red gum

6

 

 

9

Aluminum "bright"

6

 

 

 

Aluminum flitter 80/30

6

 

 

 

Laminac (polyester)

 

 

7

 

Parlon

 

 

 

15

Dextrin

 

 

 

+ 4

type

pill box

pressed

pressed

cut, rolled 

 

Blue, organically fuelled stars I
 

 

Lancaster 

Lancaster 

Lancaster 

Shimizu 

Shimizu 

Conkling 

Conkling 

Bleser 

Potassium perchlorate

 

 

39

60.8

66.5

65

65

 

Potassium chlorate 

68

70

 

 

 

 

 

12

Ammonium perchlorate

 

 

29

 

 

 

 

 

Barium chlorate

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

53

Colophony resin

6

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Paris green

22

20

 

 

 

 

 

 

Basic copper carbonate 

 

 

14

12.3

 

 

14

8

Black copper oxide

 

 

 

 

13.4

14

 

8

Copper oxychloride 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shellac, 60 mesh

 

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lactose

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Hexamine

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Parlon

 

 

 

13.1

5.4

9

10

 

PVC

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

5

Hexachlorobenzene 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Red gum

 

 

14

9

9.9

7

6

10

Dextrin

4

 

4

4.8

4.8

5

5

4

type

pumped

pill box 

pill box

cut, rolled 

cut, rolled 

cut, rolled 

cut, rolled 

cut, rolled 

solvent

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

40% alcohol 

 

Blue, organically fuelled stars II
 

 

Jennings-White 

Jennings-White 

Pihko 

Pihko 

Pihko 

Pihko 

Davis

Davis

Potassium perchlorate 

 

 

 

63

65

 

 

 

Potassium chlorate

 

65

 

 

 

 

38

51

Barium nitrate

 

 

 

 

 

 

25

 

Ammonium perchlorate 

70

 

60

 

 

60

 

 

Hexamine

15

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sulfur

 

 

17

 

10

10

 

17

Black copper oxide 

 

 

20

13

 

20

 

 

Paris green

 

 

 

 

 

 

25

 

Copper sulfate

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

26

Cuprous chloride

10

20

 

 

16

 

 

 

Strontium carbonate

 

5

 

 

 

 

 

 

Lead chloride

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

Parlon

 

 

 

14

11

 

 

 

PVC

 

 

 

 

 

12

 

 

Ammonium chloride

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

 

Red gum

 

 

6

10

7

 

 

 

Shellac

 

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

Stearin

 

 

 

 

 

 

6

 

Dextrin

5

 

 

 

 

10

 

2

type

cut, pumped, rolled 

cut, pumped, rolled 

cut, pumped, rolled 

cut, pumped, rolled 

cut, pumped, rolled 

cut, pumped, rolled 

cut, pumped, rolled

cut, rolled

solvent

25% alcohol 

alcohol

33% alcohol

33% alcohol 

33% alcohol 

25% alcohol 

25% alcohol

25% alcohol

 

Blue, metallic fuelled stars
 

 

Veline 

Potassium perchlorate 

53

Red gum

9

Magnalium, -200 mesh 

6

Black copper oxide

14

Parlon

14

Dextrin

4

type

cut, rolled 

 

Yellow, organically fuelled stars
 

 

Lancaster 

Lancaster 

Lancaster 

Shimizu 

Perigrin

Pihko

Potassium perchlorate 

 

70

60

68

70

 

Potassium chlorate

70

 

 

 

 

60

Cryolite

15

 

 

 

 

 

Sodium bicarbonate 

 

 

 

 

 

20

Red gum

10

6

 

18

12

 

Charcoal

1

 

 

2

3

 

Sodium oxalate

 

14

26

 

10

 

Sodium nitrate

 

 

 

7

 

 

Dextrin

4

4

 

5

5

20

Shellac, 60 mesh

 

6

14

 

 

 

type

pumped

cut

pill box 

cut, rolled 

cut, rolled 

cut, pumped, 
rolled

solvent

33% alcohol 

33% alcohol 

alcohol 

25% alcohol 

25% alcohol 

33% alcohol 

 

Yellow, metallic fuelled stars
 

 

Lancaster 

Lancaster 

H.W.W.

Potassium perchlorate 

 

 

30

Barium nitrate

68

 

 

Sodium nitrate

 

55.5

 

Red gum

5

 

4

Ultramarine

 

 

19.5

Cryolite

10

 

 

Magnesium

 

17

 

Aluminum, dark pyro

11

 

 

Parlon

 

 

12

PVC

 

27.5

 

Magnalium, 100 mesh 

 

 

30

Boric acid

1

 

0.5

Dextrin

 

 

4

Sulfur

5

 

 

type

pill box

pressed

cut, rolled 

solvent

alcohol

10 tons compression 

50% alcohol 

 

Amber, organically fuelled stars
 

 

Lancaster 

Davis 

Baechle

Potassium chlorate 

60

63

 

Potassium perchlorate 

 

 

60

Potassium benzoate

 

 

5

Sodium oxalate

26

25

 

Strontium carbonate

 

 

3

Cryolite

 

 

16

Red gum

 

 

12

Shellac, 60 mesh

14

12

 

Dextrin

 

 

4

type

pill box

cut, rolled, pill box 

cut, rolled 

solvent

25% alcohol 

25% alcohol 

33% alcohol 

 

Amber, metallic fuelled stars
 

 

Chemical
Formulary 10 

Winokur 

Baechle 

Baechle

Potassium perchlorate 

62.5

12

5

45

Barium nitrate

 

 

25

 

Strontium nitrate

 

 

25

 

Sodium oxalate

12.5

18

 

22

Calcium sulfate

 

29

 

 

Aluminum

 

 

15

 

Magnesium, 80 mesh

12.5

 

 

 

Magnesium, 100 mesh 

 

41

 

17

Lampblack

 

 

4

 

Sodium benzoate

 

 

4

 

Calcium flouride

6.25

 

 

 

Calcium resinate

6.25

 

 

 

Parlon

 

 

18

 

Rosin

 

 

 

16

Red gum

 

 

4

 

type

pumped

pressed

cut, rolled, pumped 

cut, rolled, pumped 

solvent

33% alcohol

 

33% alcohol

alcohol

 

Green, organically fuelled stars
 

 

Lancaster 

Lancaster 

Lancaster 

Shimizu 

Barium chlorate 

53

72

48

 

Barium nitrate

 

 

11

28

Potassium perchlorate 

 

 

 

48

Potassium chlorate

28

 

17

 

Barium carbonate

 

4

4

 

Red gum

10

12

17

14

Charcoal

5

8

 

 

Parlon

 

 

 

5

Dextrin

4

4

3

5

type

pumped

cut

pill box

cut, rolled 

 

Green, metallic fuelled stars
 

 

Lancaster 

Veline 

H.W.W. 

Barium chlorate 

25

 

 

Barium nitrate

25

23

 

Barium carbonate 

4

14

19.5

Potassium chlorate 

13

 

 

Potassium perchlorate 

 

29

30

Red gum

7

5

4

Charcoal

2

 

 

Aluminum, bright

19

 

 

Magnalium, -200 mesh 

 

11

 

Magnalium, 100 mesh

 

 

30

Dextrin

5

4

4

Parlon

 

14

12

Boric acid

 

 

0.5

type

pill box

cut, rolled 

cut, rolled 

 

White, antimony trisulfide fuelled stars
 

 

Davis 

Best AFN 3 

Best AFN 3 

Potassium nitrate 

62

64

30

Antimony trisulfide 

17

14

15

Sulfur

17

18

5

Dextrin

4

3

+5

Charcoal, air float

 

 

15

Meal powder

 

 

30

Titanium, 50 mesh

 

 

5

type

cut, rolled 

cut, rolled 

cut, rolled

 White, metallic fuelled stars
 

 

Lancaster 

Lancaster 

Lancaster 

Clark

Davis 

Davis 

Davis 

Potassium nitrate 

51

 

 

 

67

63

47

Potassium perchlorate 

 

 

 

50

 

 

 

Barium nitrate

 

55

50

8

 

 

 

Strontium nitrate

 

10

10

 

 

 

 

Antimony trisulfide

 

 

 

 

 

3

 

Antimony powder 

10

 

 

 

12

14

 

Realgar

 

 

 

 

 

 

7

Sulfur

18

8

8

 

19

17

26

Meal powder

15

 

7

 

 

 

13

Aluminum, dark pyro 

 

21

25

37

 

 

 

Zinc dust

 

 

 

 

 

 

7

Barium fluoride

 

6

 

 

 

 

 

Charcoal

3

 

 

 

 

1

 

Shellac

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dextrin

3

 

 

5

2

2

 

type

pumped

pressed

pressed

cut, pumped, 
rolled 

cut, pumped, 
rolled

cut, pumped, 
rolled

cut, pumped, 
rolled

solvent

25% alcohol 

 

 

25% alcohol

25% alcohol 

25% alcohol 

25% alcohol 

 

Orange, organically fuelled stars
 

 

Perigrin 

Perigrin 

Perigrin

Potassium perchlorate 

68

68

68

Red gum

12

13

13

Calcium carbonate

11

9

7

Charcoal

2

2

2

PVC

2

 

 

Dextrin

5

5

5

Sodium oxalate

 

3

5

type

cut, rolled 

cut, rolled 

cut, rolled 

 

Orange, metallic fuelled stars
 

 

Veline

Jennings-White

Ammonium perchlorate 

 

20

Potassium perchlorate 

53

20

Red gum

9

5

Magnalium, -200 mesh 

6

15

Titanium, flake, 20-50 mesh 

 

15

Calcium carbonate

14

15

Parlon

14

10

Dextrin

4

 

type

cut, rolled 

cut, pumped, rolled 

 

Violet, organically fuelled stars
 

 

Shimizu 

Shimizu 

Bleser

Potassium perchlorate 

61.3

64

68

Red gum

9.1

9.5

 

Basic copper carbonate 

5

 

 

Black copper oxide

 

5.2

6

Strontium carbonate

7.4

7.8

9

Parlon

12.4

8.7

 

PVC

 

 

11

Dextrin

4.8

4.8

5

type

cut, rolled 

cut, rolled 

cut, rolled 

 

Violet, metallic fuelled stars
 

 

Bleser 

Ammonium perchlorate 

68

Hexamine

7

Strontium carbonate

12

Copper benzoate

8

Magnalium

5

Potassium dichromate 

+5

Boric acid

+1

Dextrin

+4

solvent 

25% alcohol 

 

Aqua, organically fuelled stars
 

 

Saline

Freeman

Potassium perchlorate 

37.5

8

Barium nitrate

16.8

45

Barium carbonate

10.5

 

Copper carbonate

4.5

4

Magnalium, -200 mesh 

9.5

7

Red gum

6.2

 

Charcoal

 

4

Sulfur

 

8

Parlon

15

20

Dextrin

 

4

binder

Acetone 

25% alcohol 

 

Aqua, metallic fuelled stars
 

 

Freeman

Freeman

Baechle 

Baechle

Baechle 

Bleser

Potassium perchlorate 

9

 

5

 

25

 

Ammonium perchlorate 

 

 

30

 

 

 

Potassium chlorate

 

25

 

 

 

12

Barium chlorate

54

50

 

84

 

53

Barium nitrate

 

 

45

 

 

 

Red gum

14

 

10

10

14

10

Charcoal

1

 

 

 

 

 

Lactose

 

13

 

 

 

 

Barium carbonate

5

 

 

 

45

 

Copper carbonate

7

3

1

2

3

8

Black copper oxide

 

 

 

 

 

8

Potassium benzoate

 

 

5

 

5

 

Hexachlorobenzene

5

6

 

 

 

 

Chlorowax

 

 

 

2

5

 

PVC

 

 

 

 

 

5

Dextrin

5

3

4

2

3

4

binder

25% alcohol

25% alcohol

25% alcohol 

25% alcohol

25% alcohol 

25% alcohol

 

Magnesium fuelled stars
 

 

Bleser 

Bleser 

Bleser 

Bleser 

Weingart 

name 

Red magnesium 

Green magnesium 

Yellow magnesium 

White magnesium

 

Barium nitrate 

 

55

 

53

 

Strontium nitrate 

55

 

 

 

 

Potassium nitrate 

 

 

 

12

71

Potassium perchlorate 

 

 

45

 

 

Magnesium, 100-200 mesh 

28

18

30

28

29

Parlon

10

12

 

7

 

PVC

7

15

10

 

 

Cryolite

 

 

13

 

 

Charcoal

 

 

2

 

 

type

rolled

rolled

rolled

rolled

 

solvent

acetone

acetone

acetone

acetone

linseed oil

 

Metallic fire dust stars I
 

 

Shimizu 

Shimizu 

Shimizu 

Shimizu 

Shimizu 

Shimizu 

name 

Silver wave No.1

Silver wave No.2 

Golden wave No.1 

Golden wave No.2 

Golden wave No.3

Golden 
chrysanthemum 

Potassium perchlorate 

50

35

 

 

 

 

Potassium nitrate

 

 

37

37

37

40

Antimony trisulfide

 

 

9

 

 

 

Realgar

 

 

 

9

 

10

Sulfur

 

 

 

 

9

10

Charcoal, air float

 

 

 

 

 

2

Aluminum, flake 

50

65

47

47

47

30

Boric acid

 

 

1

1

1

1

Dextrin

+5

+5

6

6

6

7

type

pumped, cut, rolled 

pumped, cut, rolled 

pumped, cut, rolled 

pumped, cut, rolled 

pumped, cut, rolled 

pumped, cut, rolled 

solvent

35% alcohol

35% alcohol

35% alcohol

35% alcohol

35% alcohol

35% alcohol

 

Metallic fire dust stars II
 

 

Lancaster 

Lancaster 

Lancaster 

Lancaster 

Lancaster

Blankley 

Potassium nitrate 

 

45

13

 

 

66

Potassium chlorate 

56

 

 

 

 

 

Potassium perchlorate

 

 

 

64

64

 

Barium nitrate

 

 

55

 

 

 

Charcoal, air float

 

 

 

 

 

13

Aluminum, bright

19

 

 

14

24

 

Aluminum, dark pyro 

19

30

21

 

4

 

Aluminum, 120 mesh atomized 

 

10

 

 

 

 

Aluminum, 30/80 flitter

 

 

 

14

 

 

Titanium, 60 mesh

 

 

 

 

 

8

Sulfur

 

10

4

 

 

8

Meal powder

 

5

 

 

 

 

Boric acid

 

 

1

 

 

 

Dextrin

6

+5

6

 

 

5

Shellac

 

 

 

8

8

 

type

pumped

pumped

pill box

pill box

pill box

cut

solvent

25% alcohol 

25% alcohol 

water 

10% shellac solution 

10% shellac solution 

25% alcohol 

 

Charcoal fire dust stars
 

 

Shimizu

Shimizu 

Shimizu 

Shimizu 

Shimizu 

Shimizu 

name 

Chrysanthemum 6 

Chrysanthemum 8 

Chrysanthemum of Mystery 

Falls 

Willow 

Tiger Tail 

Potassium nitrate 

55

49

45

41

35

44

Sulfur

7

6

 

4

12

6

Pine charcoal

33

40

50

 

45

44

Aluminum

 

 

 

49

 

 

Dextrin

5

5

5

6

8

6

type 

cut

cut

cut

cut 

cut

cut

solvent

25% alcohol

25% alcohol

25% alcohol

25% alcohol

25% alcohol

25% alcohol

 

Black powder-metal fire dust stars
 

 

Oglesby

Oglesby 

Winokur 

Winokur 

Winokur 

Winokur 

Bleser 

Bleser 

Davis 

name 

Better Pearl 

Improved Snowball 

#13

#20

#33

#39

Golden Flitter #13

Silver Flitter #14

Snowball 

Potassium nitrate 

47

35

50

48

43

51

36

 

40

Potassium perchlorate 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

33

 

Barium nitrate

10

16

 

 

13

 

 

 

19

Sulfur 

18

9

17

 

10

 

8

 

10

Charcoal, air float

10

9

9

10

10

19

 

 

10

Antimony trisulfide

 

13

10

 

 

12

 

 

10

Aluminum, 12 micron

10

10

6

 

13

8

19

 

6

Aluminum, dark pyro

 

 

 

 

 

 

30

61

 

Magnalium, -200 mesh 

 

 

3

12

 

 

 

 

 

Sodium bicarbonate 

 

 

9

5

 

 

 

 

 

Red iron oxide

 

 

 

4

7

 

 

 

 

Barium carbonate

 

 

 

 

 

5

 

 

 

Dextrin

5

8

4

4

4

5

6

6

5

type

cut

cut

cut

cut

cut

cut

cut

cut

cut

solvent

33% alcohol 

33% alcohol 

33% alcohol 

33% alcohol

33% alcohol 

33% alcohol 

25% alcohol

25% alcohol 

25% alcohol 

 

Comets
 

 

Bleser 

Bleser

Williams 

Lancaster 

Lancaster 

name 

Blond Streamer 

Blond Streamer #2

No-Antimony White Glitter

 

 

Potassium nitrate 

45

 

55

55

 

Black powder

 

 

 

 

2

Meal powder

 

60

 

 

 

Sulfur

6

 

7

15

 

Charcoal, 150 mesh

29

 

17

 

1

Charcoal, mixed

 

20

 

25

 

Dextrin

5

5

4

5

 

Red iron oxide

 

 

4

 

 

Ferrotitanium, 100 mesh 

15

15

 

 

 

Aluminum, spherical, 325 mesh 

 

 

10

 

 

Magnalium, 100-200 mesh 

 

 

3

 

 

type

pumped (comet pump) 

pumped (comet pump)

pumped (comet pump)

pumped (comet pump) 

pumped (comet pump) 

solvent

25% alcohol

25% alcohol

25% alcohol

25% alcohol 

 

 

Crackling microstars

CAUTION: Crackling microstars are very sensitive and may explode violently from heat, shock, or friction.
 

 

Best AFN 3

Best AFN 3

Best AFN 3

Lead tetraoxide 

 

70

81.8

Bismuth trioxide

75

 

 

Magnalium, -200 mesh

15

17.5

9.1

Black copper oxide

10

12.5

9.1

Aluminum, 200 mesh atomized

+5

+5

 

type

cut

cut

 

solvent

10% NC lacquer 

10% NC lacquer 

10% NC lacquer

 

The Veline Color System
 

 

Red 

Orange 

Blue 

Green

Potassium perchlorate 

53

53

53

29

Red gum

9

9

9

5

Magnalium, -200 mesh 

6

6

6

11

Strontium carbonate

14

 

 

 

Calcium carbonate

 

14

 

 

Black copper oxide

 

 

14

 

Barium nitrate

 

 

 

23

Barium carbonate 

 

 

 

14

Parlon

14

14

14

14

Dextrin

4

4

4

4

type

cut, pumped, rolled 

cut, pumped, rolled 

cut, pumped, rolled 

cut, pumped, rolled 

solvent

alcohol 

alcohol

alcohol 

alcohol 

Combining the above formulas in different proportions will yield various exotic colors:
 

 

Yellow 

Chartreuse 

Aqua

Turquoise 

Magenta 

Maroon 

Peach 

Purple

Red formula 

 

 

 

 

50

85

25

15

Orange formula 

45

20

 

 

 

 

60

5

Blue formula

 

 

20

45

50

15

15

80

Green formula

55

80

80

55

 

 

 

 

 

Strobe stars I

DANGER: Magnesium and ammonium perchlorate can react exothermically, causing spontaneous combustion. Magnesium must be protected by coating with potassium dichromate if used with ammonium perchlorate. Addition of potassium dichromate to the composition will not ensure cessation of the reaction.

DANGER: Copper sulfate can not be used in formulas using ammonium perchlorate to produce a blue strobe. Copper sulfate absorbs moisture readily from the surrounding atmosphere. This moisture would then cause the magnesium and ammonium perchlorate to react producing heat, and eventually spontaneous combustion.
 

 

Bleser 

Bleser 

Shimizu 

Shimizu 

Shimizu 

Shimizu 

Shimizu 

name 

Green strobe 

White strobe 

Red strobe 

Orange strobe 

Yellow strobe 

Green strobe 

White strobe

Barium nitrate 

53

51

 

 

 

 

 

Potassium nitrate 

 

7

 

 

 

 

 

Ammonium perchlorate 

 

 

50

60

50

60

60

Magnalium, 100 mesh

12

18

 

 

 

 

25

Magnesium, atomized, 100 mesh 

 

 

30

30

40

23

 

Sulfur

17

19

 

 

 

 

 

Hexachlorobenzene

13

 

 

 

 

 

 

Strontium sulfate

 

 

20

 

 

 

 

Sodium sulfate

 

 

 

 

10

 

 

Barium sulfate

 

 

 

 

 

17

15

Calcium sulfate

 

 

 

10 

 

 

 

Potassium dichromate 

 

 

+5

+5

+5

+5

+5

Dextrin

5

5

 

 

 

 

 

frequency (hertz)

unknown

unknown

3.5

6.9

3.5

3.1

9.7

type

cut, pumped, rolled 

cut, pumped, rolled 

cut, pumped, rolled 

cut, pumped, rolled 

cut, pumped, rolled 

cut, pumped, rolled

cut, pumped, rolled

solvent

25% alcohol 

25% alcohol

10% NC lacquer

10% NC lacquer

10% NC lacquer

10% NC lacquer

10% NC lacquer

 

Strobe stars II
 

 

Hall 

Hall 

Kinsei 

Kinsei

name 

 

 

Green strobe

Yellow strobe 

Potassium nitrate 

 

 

 

7

Barium nitrate

26

27

40

33

Magnalium, -80 mesh 

 

 

18

12

Magnesium, -60 mesh 

17

18

 

 

Aluminum, fine flake 

6

 

 

 

Benzene hexachloride

 

 

5

11

Sulfur

51

55

30

27

Antimony trisulfide

 

 

7

5

Sodium oxalate

 

 

 

5

type

cut, pumped, rolled 

cut, pumped, rolled 

cut, pumped, rolled 

cut, pumped, rolled 

solvent 

10% NC lacquer 

10% NC lacquer

10% NC lacquer

10% NC lacquer

 

Gold stars
 

 

Lancaster 

Lancaster 

Lancaster 

Potassium perchlorate 

 

 

13.5

Potassium chlorate 

 

 

13.5

Potassium nitrate 

 

 

15

Meal powder 

54

66

 

Antimony trisulfide 

6

8

 

Lampblack

13

23

49

Charcoal, 150 mesh 

20

 

 

Red gum

 

3

 

Dextrin

7

 

6

Shellac, 120 mesh

 

 

3

type

pumped

pumped

pumped

solvent

33% alcohol 

alcohol

33% alcohol 

 

Zinc spreader and granite stars

CAUTION: Zinc spreader stars have a very large flame envelope and are very violent. Extreme caution should be exercised when testing stars of this composition.
 

 

Weingart

Weingart 

name 

Zinc spreader 
stars

Granite stars 

Potassium chlorate 

7.5

 

Potassium nitrate 

 

14

Sulfur

 

2.5

Charcoal, 150 mesh 

 

7

Charcoal, 36 mesh

6

 

Zinc dust

36

40

Potassium dichromate 

6

 

Dextrin

1

1

type

pumped

cut

solvent

25% alcohol

25% alcohol 

 

Aluminum streamer stars
 

 

AFN 

Potassium nitrate 

57

Charcoal

6

Aluminum, -325 mesh spheroidal 

13

Magnalium, -200 mesh

9

Titanium, 20 - 40 mesh

9

Red gum

6

type

cut, rolled, pumped 

solvent

33% alcohol

 

Primes

 

Perigrin 

Perigrin 

Perigrin 

Perigrin 

Veline 

Best AFN 3

Shimizu

name 

BP outer prime 

Magnalium inner prime 

Flitter prime 

Perchlorate prime 

Veline star prime 

Microstar prime 

Multi-use prime

Potassium perchlorate 

 

73

33

73

55

 

74

Potassium nitrate 

 

 

 

 

 

57.2

 

Red gum

 

12

8

11

 

 

12

Charcoal, air float 

5

5

 

7

20

11.4

6

Sulfur

 

 

 

 

 

11.4

 

Wood meal, -70 mesh 

 

 

 

 

6

 

 

Magnalium, -200 mesh 

 

 

 

 

5

 

 

Black copper oxide

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

Red iron oxide

 

 

 

 

5

 

 

Black iron oxide

 

1

 

 

 

 

 

Aluminum, dark

 

4

10

 

 

5.7

3

Black powder, fine 

93

 

 

 

 

 

 

Barium nitrate 

 

 

34

 

 

 

 

Antimony trisulfide

 

 

9

 

 

 

 

Silicon

 

 

 

 

 

11.4

 

Boric acid

 

 

1

 

 

 

 

Potassium dichromate 

 

 

 

5

5

 

5

Dextrin

2

4

5

5

4

2.9

 

solvent

50% alcohol

50% alcohol

33% alcohol

33% alcohol

33% alcohol

50% alcohol

50% alcohol 

 

Red smoke star
Source: Shimizu[1], page 226. Listed as "Smoke dye compositions for stars, red"
Comments:
Preparation: Wheat flour can be substituted for milk sugar. Produce as 10mm cut stars, and prime with meal powder.

Potassium chlorate................................28
Milk sugar........................................20
Rhodamine B conc..................................30
Oil orange........................................22
Soluble glutinous rice starch.....................+3%

Yellow smoke star #1
Source: Composition from Shimizu[1], page 229. Listed as "Yellow dragon"
Comments: The smoke is more dense than that of dye smoke, but it looks dark yellow against the light of the sun. The smoke is poisonous.
Preparation: Make pressed stars.

Potassium nitrate.................................25
Sulfur............................................16
Realgar...........................................59

Yellow smoke star #2
Source: Composition from Shimizu[1], page 228. Listed as "White willow"
Comments:
Preparation:

Potassium nitrate.................................48.5
Sulfur............................................48.5
Realgar...........................................3
Charcoal (or hemp coal)...........................+2%
Soluble glutinous rice starch.....................+6%

Yellow smoke star #3
Source: Composition from Shimizu[1], page 229. Listed as "Yellow willow"
Comments:
Preparation: Form into cut stars, and dry them well. Place them in a coating tub. Add a slurry of soluble glutinous rice starch and cover all the surfaces with the paste by shaking the tub. Remove from the tub and place them on gypsum powder. Roll them in it until all the stars are coated with the gypsum. Dry in the sun. Repeat these operations untill the layer of gypsum becomes thicker than 1.5mm. It will be necessary to repeat at least 6 times. When done, bore a hole in each star to introduce the fire in it (with appropiate precautions taken). Prime the hole with black powder paste and dry in the sun. Roll a final layer of soluble glutinous rice starch and meal powder over the stars and dry them thoroughly.

Potassium nitrate.................................43
Sulfur............................................10
Realgar...........................................37
Hemp coal (or Paulownia coal).....................4
Soluble glutinous rice starch.....................6

Green smoke star
Source: Composition from Shimizu[1], page 226. Listed as "Smoke dye compositions for stars, green"
Comments:
Preparation: Wheat flour can be substituted for milk sugar. Produce as 10mm cut stars, and prime with meal powder.

Potassium chlorate................................33
Milk sugar........................................27
Oil yellow (Butter yellow)........................20
Phthalocyanine blue...............................20
Soluble glutinous rice starch.....................+3%

Blue smoke star
Source: Composition from Shimizu[1], page 226. Listed as "Smoke dye compositions for stars, blue"
Comments:
Preparation: Wheat flour can be substituted for milk sugar. Produce as 10mm cut stars, and prime with meal powder.

Potassium chlorate................................33
Milk sugar........................................27
Phthalocyanine blue...............................40
Soluble glutinous rice starch.....................+3%

Violet smoke star
Source: Composition from Shimizu[1], page 226. Listed as "Smoke dye compositions for stars, Violet"
Comments:
Preparation: Wheat flour can be substituted for milk sugar. Produce as 10mm cut stars, and prime with meal powder.

Potassium chlorate................................29
Milk sugar........................................25
Rhodamine B conc..................................13
Oil orange........................................16
Phthalocyanine blue...............................17
Soluble glutinous rice starch.....................+3%

White smoke star #1
Source: Composition from Shimizu[1], page 228. Listed as "White chrysanthemum I"
Comments:
Preparation:

Potassium nitrate.................................53
Sulfur............................................7
Charcoal (or hemp coal)...........................32
Lampblack.........................................8
Soluble glutinous rice starch.....................+6%

White smoke star #2
Source: Composition from Shimizu[1], page 228. Listed as "White chrysanthemum II"
Comments:
Preparation:

Potassium nitrate.................................66
Realgar...........................................13
Charcoal (or hemp coal)...........................5
Lampblack.........................................5
Soluble glutinous rice starch.....................11

White smoke star #3
Source: Composition from Shimizu[1], page 228. Listed as "White willow"
Comments: The smoke is caused by condensation of sulfur vapour.
Preparation: Form into cut stars, and dry them well. Place them in a coating tub. Add a slurry of soluble glutinous rice starch and cover all the surfaces with the paste by shaking the tub. Remove from tge tub and place them on gypsum powder. Roll them in it until all the stars are coated with the gypsym. Dry in the sun. Repeat these operations until the layer of gypsum becomes thicker than 1.5mm. It will be necessary to repeat 6 times. When done, bore a hole in each star to introduce the fire in it (with appropiate precautions taken). Prime the hole with black powder paste and dry in the sun. Roll a final layer of soluble glutinous rice starch and meal powder over the stars and dry them thoroughly.

Potassium nitrate.................................48.5
Sulfur............................................48.5
Realgar...........................................3
Charcoal (or hemp coal)...........................+2%
Soluble glutinous rice starch.....................+6%