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Pyrotechnic Formulas: Smoke Compositions

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Chapter 5: Smoke Compositions

White smoke
Source: "Mengen en Roeren"[6], page 224.
Comments:
Preparation:

Potassium nitrate.................................4
Charcoal..........................................5
Sulfur............................................10
Wood dust.........................................3

Red smoke
Source: "Mengen en Roeren"[6], page 224.
Comments:
Preparation:

Potassium chlorate................................15
para-nitroaniline red.............................65
Lactose...........................................20

Green smoke
Source: "Mengen en Roeren"[6], page 224.
Comments:
Preparation:

Synthetic indigo..................................26
Auramine (yellow).................................15
Potassium chlorate................................35
Lactose...........................................26

Smoke composition #1
Source: rec.pyrotechnics
Comments: Different sources mention differnt compositions. The most often mentioned one is given here.
Preparation: The mixture is most succesfull when prepared by melting the sugar and potassium nitrate together on low heat, but this requires good stirring, and there is a risk of accidential ignition. The molten mixture can be poured in cardboard containers and a fuse insterted while the mixture solidifies.

Potassium nitrate.................................50
Sugar.............................................50

Smoke composition #2
Source: rec.pyrotechnics (composition is an U.S. military smoke composition)
Comments: The mixture is difficult to ignite. Hexachloroethane is poisonous, and can be replaced by 72 parts PVC. This, however, makes the mixture yet harder to ignite. The zinc oxide can be replaced by titanium dioxide (2 parts ZnO replaced by 1 part TiO2). The smoke is slightly irritating and not suitable for indoor use.
Preparation:

Zinc oxide........................................45
Hexachloroethane..................................45
Aluminum..........................................10

Smoke composition #3
Source: "Spelen met vuur"[9]
Comments:
Preparation:

Zinc powder.......................................35
CCl4..............................................41
Zinc oxide........................................20
Diatomeous earth..................................5

Smoke composition #4
Source: "Spelen met vuur"[9]
Comments:
Preparation:

Zinc powder.......................................25
CCl4..............................................50
Zinc oxide........................................20
Diatomeous earth..................................5

Smoke composition #5
Source: Kirk-Otthmer technical encyclopedia[8], chapter 'Explosives and Propellants'.
Comments: Heat of reaction: 2.579 kJ/g, Gas volume: 62 cm3/g, ignition temperature: 475 C, impact sensitivity test: 15% of TNT
Preparation:

Zinc..............................................69
Potassium perchlorate.............................19
Hexachlorobenzene.................................12

Colored smokes
 

 

Shimizu 

Pihko 

Shimizu 

Shimizu

Pihko 

Shimizu

Shimizu 

Shimizu 

Pihko 

Faber 

color 

Blue 

Blue

Green 

Red 

Red

Violet 

Yellow

Yellow

Yellow 

Brown 

Potassium chlorate 

28

33

28

25

24

26

 

 

24

 

Potassium nitrate

 

 

 

 

 

 

25

43

 

47.4

Sulfur

 

 

 

 

 

 

16

10

 

3.9

Realgar

 

 

 

 

 

 

59

37

 

 

Wheat flour

15

 

15

15

 

15

 

 

 

 

Lactose

 

25

 

 

16

 

 

 

16

 

Quinoline Yellow

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

43

 

Rhodamine B

 

 

 

24

40

16

 

 

 

 

Para Red

 

 

 

36

 

21

 

 

 

 

Methylene Blue

17

 

17

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Phthalo Blue

 

40

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Indigo Pure

40

 

30

 

 

22

 

 

 

 

Auramine

 

 

10

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Charcoal

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

 

 

Sand

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4

Calcium carbonate 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.9

Borax

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10.6

Pitch

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

29.2

Sodium bicarbonate 

 

 

 

 

4

 

 

 

6

 

Dextrin

 

2

 

 

2

 

 

6

2

 

White smokes
 

 

Shidlovsky 

Becher 

Lancaster

Shimizu 

Shimizu

Shimizu 

Potassium chlorate 

20

40

29

 

 

 

Potassium nitrate

 

 

 

 

48.5

66

Ammonium chloride 

50

45

 

 

 

 

Hexachloroethane

 

 

 

50

 

 

Zinc powder

 

 

 

28

 

 

Zinc oxide

 

 

 

22

 

 

Sulfur

 

 

 

 

48.5

 

Realgar

 

 

 

 

3

13

Naphthalene

20

 

 

 

 

 

Montan wax

 

12

 

 

 

 

Kieselguhr

 

3

 

 

 

 

Charcoal

10

 

 

 

 

5

Lampblack

 

 

 

 

 

5

Cinnamic acid

 

 

27

 

 

 

Lactose

 

 

29

 

 

 

Kaolin

 

 

15

 

 

 

Dextrin

 

 

 

 

 

11

 

Grey smokes
 

 

Izzo 

Ellern 

Potassium nitrate 

10

 

Hexachloroethane 

50

45.5

Zinc powder

25

 

Zinc oxide

10

45.5

Calcium silicide

 

9

Colophony resin

5

 

 

Black smokes
 

 

Lancaster

Lancaster 

Shimizu 

Shimizu 

Shimizu 

Shimizu 

Shimizu 

Potassium perchlorate 

 

 

56

 

 

 

57

Potassium chlorate 

 

 

 

44

 

 

 

Potassium nitrate

 

60

 

 

 

 

 

Hexachloroethane 

60

 

 

 

62

62

 

Anthracene

20

 

33

 

 

23

40

Naphthalene

 

 

 

26

23

 

 

Magnesium powder 

20

 

 

 

15

15

 

Sulfur

 

3

11

 

 

 

 

Antimony trisulfide

 

 

 

24

 

 

 

Sawdust

 

26

 

 

 

 

 

Liquid tar 

 

7

 

 

 

 

 

Charcoal

 

 

 

 

 

 

3

Red gum

 

4

 

 

 

 

 

Dextrin

 

 

 

6

 

 

+7