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Pyrotechnic Formulas: Miscellaneous Compositions

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Chapter 7: Miscellaneous Compositions

Black powder

Source: Various sources
Comments: Two methods of preparation exist, the precipitation or CIA method, and the ball milling method. The latter produces slightly superior results. Special attention should be given to the charcoal used. Charcoal is best obtained by pyrolysis of soft-wood. Preffered types of wood are willow, grapevine and laurel. In general all young, thin soft-woods without hard knots can be used. Although several different compositions are used for several purposes, the composition given here is used most often:
Preparation: Merely mixing the charcoal, sulfur and potassium nitrate by hand does not make black powder. They must really be incorporated into each other. This can be done by ball milling or by the salting out ('CIA') method. A detailed description of the process can be found in many books.

Potassium nitrate.................................75
Charcoal..........................................15
Sulfur............................................10

Yellow powder

Source: rec.pyrotechnics, post by The Silent Observer <silent1@ix.netcom.com. It comes from a text of 'Samuel Guthrie' written in 1831. More about this mixture can be found in Davis[10], page 30 and 31.
Comments: It is sometimes called "Fulminating powder". The mixture burns three times quicker than common black powder.
Preparation: The compounds are sometimes molten together, which appears to be a very dangerous operation.

Potassium nitrate................................3
Potassium carbonate...............................2
Sulfur............................................1

Priming composition #1
Source: rec.pyrotechnics
Comments:
Preparation:

Barium nitrate....................................4
Potassium nitrate.................................3
Sulfur............................................1
Shellac...........................................1

Priming composition #2
Source: "Spelen met vuur"[9]
Comments:
Preparation:

Potassium permanganate............................54
Powdered iron.....................................47

Priming composition #3

Source:
Comments: Suitable for priming most stars. Chlorate stars or stars containing ammonium compounds should never be primed with this composition. It can be stored in small plastic containers.
Preparation:

Potassium nitrate, fine, sieved...................75
Sulfur, fine (preferably flour)...................10
Charcoal, fine, sieved............................15

Priming composition #4

Source:
Comments: Suitable for priming stars. Aluminum and manganese dioxide aid in ignition, but are not necessary.
Preparation:

Potassium perchlorate.............................80
Charcoal, fine....................................15
Red gum...........................................4
Manganese dioxide (optional) .....................9
Aluminum, (fine flake or pyro grade; optional)....4
Dextrin...........................................2

Priming composition #5

Source:
Comments: This type of prime helps reduce the friction and impact sensitivity of chlorate stars which is especially important when shells fire from the mortar and experience set-back or "kick" from lift acceleration.
Preparation:

Potassium perchlorate.............................68
Charcoal, air float...............................20
Silicon or Aluminum...............................9
Dextrin...........................................3

Priming composition #6

Source: PML, post by J. Humby <jhumby@iee.org
Comments: This prime is safe to use with chlorate stars and gives a much better color than a black powder prime. The difference is most noticable on red stars which tend to a dark salmon color when primed with black powder.
Preparation: Dissolve the potassium nitrate in hot water and mix with the charcoal.

Potassium chlorate................................52
Potassium nitrate.................................8
Charcoal..........................................30
Lampblack.........................................10
Binder............................................+5%

Priming composition #7

Source: Shimizu[1], page 218
Comments: A standard black powder priming cannot be used with stars that contain ammonium perchlorate, since a double decomposition reaction forms the highly hygroscopic ammonium nitrate. This makes the stars unignitable. Replacing the potassium nitrate prime by this priming composition solves that problem.
Preparation:

Sodium nitrate....................................80
Paulownia coal....................................15
Sulfur............................................5

Priming composition #8

Source: Shimizu[1], page 225. Listed as "Ignition composition for twinklers".
Comments: Used for strobe stars of ammonium perchlorate base to prevent nitrates from the outer priming to react with the ammonium perchlorate. The layer should be at least 1-2mm thick.
Preparation:

Potassium perchlorate.............................74
Rosin (BL combustion agent) or Red gum............12
Hemp coal (or paulownia coal).....................6
Aluminum (fine flake).............................3
Potassium bichromate..............................5

Delay composition #1

Source: Kirk-Otthmer technical encyclopedia[8], chapter 'Explosives and Propellants'.
Comments: Heat of reaction: 2.010 kJ/g; Gas volume: 13 cm3/g; Ignition temperature: 450 C; impact sensitivity test: 12 % of TNT.
Preparation:

Barium chromate...................................90
Boron.............................................10

Delay composition #2

Source: Kirk-Otthmer technical encyclopedia[8], chapter 'Explosives and Propellants'.
Comments: Heat of reaction: 2.081 kJ/g; Gas volume: 12 cm3/g; Ignition temperature: 485 C; impact sensitivity test: 23 % of TNT.
Preparation:

Barium chromate...................................60
Zirconium-nickel alloy............................26
Potassium perchlorate.............................14

Changing Relay #1

Source: Shimizu[1], page 187
Comments: This type of composition is put between two color layers in a star to create the illusion that all the stars change their color clearly and simultaneously in spite of slight deviations in manufacture.
Preparation:

Potassium perchlorate.............................35
Potassium nitrate.................................35
Hemp coal (or Paulownia coal).....................24
Soluble glutinous rice starch.....................6

Changing Relay #2

Source: Shimizu[1], page 187
Comments: This type of composition is put between two color layers in a star to create the illusion that all the stars change their color clearly and simultaneously in spite of slight deviations in manufacture.
Preparation:

Potassium perchlorate.............................81
Red gum...........................................13
Soluble glutinous rice starch.....................6

Golden rain #1

Source: "Mengen en Roeren"[6], page 224
Comments: Burns with a yellow color, and emits yellow sparks that are formed by the slowly burning lampblack.
Preparation:

Potassium nitrate.................................18
Sulfur............................................8
Lampblack.........................................5

Golden rain #2

Source: "Mengen en Roeren"[6], page 224
Comments: Burns with a yellow color, and emits yellow sparks that are formed by the slowly burning lampblack and the iron filings.
Preparation:

Potassium nitrate.................................10
Sulfur............................................2
Lampblack.........................................2
Fine iron filings.................................7

Fire dust

Source: Shimizu[1], page 67
Comments: The composition spreads a large amount of long lived orange fire dust particles. The lifetime of those particles depends mainly on the consistency and type of charcoal.
Preparation: The components must be intimately mixed. This can be done by dissolving the potassium nitrate in a minimum amount of boiling water, adding the charcoal and sulfur and precipitating the potassium nitrate in the form of fine particles by adding a large amount of isopropyl alcohol and cooling the solution as fast as possible to 0 C, followed by filtering and drying.

Potassium nitrate.................................58
Charcoal..........................................35
Sulfur............................................7

Senko Hanabi (Japanese sparklers), sulfur based

Source: Shimizu[1], page 70
Comments: For more details on what the effect looks like and how devices can be constructed, look at 10.4, "The phenomenon of Senko-Hanabi" in Shimizu's book (on page 68). Realgar may be used instead of sulfur, see 'Senko Hanabi (Japanese sparklers), realgar based' for a realgar based formula. The realgar based formula produces larger en more beautiful sparks.
Preparation:

Potassium nitrate.................................60
Charcoal or soot..................................10-20
Sulfur............................................20-30

Senko Hanabi (Japanese sparklers), realgar based

Source: Shimizu[1], page 70
Comments: For more details on what the effect looks like and how devices can be constructed, look at 10.4, "The phenomenon of Senko-Hanabi" in Shimizu's book (on page 68). Sulfur may be used instead of realgar, see 'Senko Hanabi (Japanese sparklers), sulfur based' for a sulfur based formula. This realgar based formula produces larger en more beautiful sparks than the sulfur based formula.
Preparation:

Potassium nitrate.................................35
Charcoal or soot..................................20
Realgar...........................................45

"Pharaoh Snakes"

Source: "Mengen en Roeren"[6], page 223
Comments: When lighted, this composition produces very voluminous snake-shaped ash. Mercury compounds are very poisonous, and extreme caution should be excercised during preparing and handling this composition. Wear gloves at all times, and use a fume hood.
Preparation: Instructions for making mercuric thiocyanate: 1) Dissolve 64 parts of mercuric nitrate in water, and separately dissolve 36 parts potassium thiocyanate in water. 2) Mix both solutions, and filtrate to collect the precipitate that forms upon mixing. 3) Rinse the collected precipitate 3 times with distilled water, and place it in a warm (not hot) place to dry.

Mercuric thiocyanate..............................100
Dragant...........................................5
arabic gum binder.................................qs

Thermite

Source:
Comments: This composition produces an enormous amount of heat (83.7 kJ per mol of iron oxide that has reacted), molten iron and aluminum oxide. Other metal oxides can be substituted to make other thermite-like compositions that behave differently. Some may explode (like CuO with aluminum or PbO2 with aluminum), so caution is required when experimenting with different mixtures.
Preparation:

Red iron oxide, Fe2O3.............................3
Aluminum..........................................1

Red thermite
Source: Shimizu[1], page 29
Comments: This mixture is sometimes used for priming.
Preparation:

Pb3O4.............................................80
Ferro-silicon.....................................20

Electric Match

Source: PML, post by Mike Carter <pyro@primenet.com
Comments: This composition does not require the use of a bridge wire. The composition itself acts as a resistor. Comments from the poster: "The matches fire just fine on 200 feet of #16 guage wire and a standard 12V battery two at a time. Sometimes there's a delay...I haven't tested these on the high power electric firing systems so I don't know how they fare."
Preparation: 1) Bind in water. Make CMC & Water into a mostly soupy mess. Add components into a container and mix well. 2) Dip freshly stripped wire with both conductors about 1mm or slightly less between them, evenly parallel. The longer the exposed metal on the wire, the less Ohmage the match will have. Allow to dry in vertical hanging position. Redip as necessary. I find that two dips is just fine. 3) Once the comp is dry, you will need to coat it with NC (Nitrocellulose) laquer. I find that two dips in the NC laquer is enough to keep the very brittle comp from cracking or splitting while manuevering the wire into your shell or mine or rocket motor. I normally will color the double-dippers with some Iron Oxide stirred into the NC Laquer so I have a visual that they're unsuitable for firing whistle motors. (Double Dipped tend to go BANG, and destroy the motor).

Potassium chlorate, Ball milled into a fine powder.....16
Conductive lampblack..............................3
Magnalium (50/50), 200 mesh.......................3
Atomized aluminum, 120 mesh.......................2
Zirconium, 200 mesh (optional)....................2
CMC Binder (carboxymethylcellulose)...............5

Veline's priming

Source: rec. pyrotechnics, post by Lloyd E. Sponenburgh <lloyds@fiscalinfo.com. This set of compositions was invented by Robert Veline and is used in Kosankie's 'Chemistry of Fireworks (Chemistry of color) class'.
Comments: These compositions are part of a matched set invented by Robert Veline. The compositions mix compatibly to produce a wide range of other colors. Examples are given below. The wood meal in this prime makes the stars a little 'fuzzy', making the stars much more easy to ignite. Without the wood meal prime the stars are often blown blind.
Preparation: Summary of Robert Veline's own comments: "Potassium perchlorate is a fine powder. Parlon is Hercules brand or Superchlon brand from Ishihara co. ltd. Red gum is a fine powder. Copper(II)oxide may be substituted by copper carbonate without much change in performance. Calcium carbonate is 200 mesh, 'Whiting'. More pure forms slow the burn rate and degrade the color."

Potassium perchlorate.............................55
Charcoal, air float...............................20
Wood meal, 70 mesh................................6
Red Iron Oxide, Fe2O3.............................5
Magnalium (50/50).................................5
Potassium dichromate..............................5
Dextrin...........................................4

Brilliant core coating composition

Source: Composition from Shimizu[1], page 219.
Comments: This composition can be used to prime the 'Brilliant Core' stars (see effect stars). roll the cores in this prime untill they are round.
Preparation:

Potassium perchlorate.............................33
Barium nitrate....................................34
Aluminum (fine flake).............................10
Rosin (BL combustion agent).......................8
Antimony trisulfude (or sulfur)...................9
Boric acid........................................1
Soluble glutinous rice starch.....................5

Sparklers
 

 

Visser

Visser 

Visser 

Visser

Visser 

Visser 

Visser 

Potassium nitrate 

 

64

 

 

 

 

44

Potassium perchlorate 

40

 

60

 

 

50

 

Barium chlorate

 

 

 

37

 

 

 

Strontium nitrate

 

 

 

 

86

 

 

Sulfur

 

14

 

 

 

 

12

Charcoal, air float

 

14

 

 

 

 

25

Titanium, fine flake

40

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aluminum, fine flake

 

10

30

56

 

35

19

Iron powder

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Nitroguanidine

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Propyl guar

2

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shellac

 

 

 

7

14

 

 

Dextrin

18

+5

10

 

 

15

+5

 

Thermite compositions

CAUTION:Red thermit is very sensitive to friction and flame. While it is not a highly energetic composition, it burns extremely hot and severe burns can result from improper handling.

DANGER: Thermite mixtures can burn with temperatures exceeding 3000oC. If water contacts a thermite fire, a steam explosion will result. Thermite fires generate temendous amounts of ulvtraviolet light which may cause severe eye damage.
 

 

Shimizu

Shimizu

unknown 

Haarmann 

Haarmann 

Haarmann 

Harrmann

Haarmann

name 

Red thermit I

Red thermit II

Thermite 

Therm-8

Therm 8-2

Therm 64-c 

Barytes 
Thermite

Calcium sulfate thermite

Barium nitrate

 

 

 

15

19.5

29

 

 

Lead tetraoxide 

80

70

 

 

 

 

 

 

Calcium sulfate 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

57.8

Barium sulfate

 

 

 

 

 

 

2

 

Red iron oxide

 

 

75

 

 

 

 

 

Black iron oxide 

 

 

 

61

55.2

44

59.2

 

Sulfur

 

 

 

0.9

0.3

2

 

1

Silicon

 

30

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ferrosilicon 

20

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Aluminum

 

 

25

22.8

25

25

25.3

40.9

Castor oil

 

 

 

0.3

 

 

 

0.3

 

Fuse compositions
 

 

Lancaster 

Lancaster 

Earl 

Earl 

Shimizu 

Shimizu 

name 

White fire 
(spolette fuse) 

Fast fuse 

Common fuse 

Sump fuse 

Dark fuse I 

Dark fuse II 

Potassium nitrate 

25

20

73

77

36

56

Meal powder

65

75

 

 

 

 

Charcoal

 

 

15.5

13.5

10

10

Sulfur

10

5

11.5

9.5

9

34

Realgar

 

 

 

 

45

 

 

 

HOME-MADE FUSE 

Materials Needed: 

Syringe with a tapered nozzle instead of a needleYou can find them at the pharmacy or A farmer's supply store  

Hollow-core Cotton StringYou can buy hollow-core string from a local art & crafts store, It is sold as a wick for oil lamps or homemade candles. Be sure to remove the string thatusually comes threaded through the core.  

Meal PowderThis is just black powder that is ground to a fine powder. 

DextrinYou can get dextrin from health food stores or any of the on-line pyrostores.  You can also make it yourself by baking a thin layer of cornstarch on a cookie sheet at 400 Degrees for a few hours. It is important that you mix it every 20 minutes, this will prevent the cornstarch from burning. The process is done when it turns a nice golden brown color.  

 

25% Nitrocellulose LacquerDo not use regular lacquer, polyurethane, or any other wood finish.  Nitrocelluloselacquer is used in fine woodwork like musical instruments and it can be also bebought from any of the on-line pyro stores. You can also make it yoursel by cuttingup six ping-pong balls and dissolving them in a half pint of acetone. 

Adding a bit of camphor oil to the NC lacquer will make it more flexible Canmphor oil is usually available from businesses that sell herbs, spices, essential oils and soapmaking supplies. 

Procedure:1: Make Black Powder paste by taking 10 parts meal powder andthoroughly mix with 1 part dextrin and stirring it into some boiling water until the mixture is firm but fluid.2: Remove the plunger from the syringe and plug the hole at the bottom witha thumb. Pour the BP paste into the syringe, filling it almost to the top.Reinsert the plunger until all air in the syringe has been removed.3: Insert the nozzle of the hobby syringe into one end of the 1 meter hollowcore string and depress the plunger.  BP paste will fill the center of thehollow-core string. Refill the syringe using the method outlined in step 2whenever necessary. Continue injecting the BP paste until it is visiblyexuding from the opposite end.4: Remove the string from the syringe's nozzle and lay it down on a flatsurface. Gently roll the string between the heel of one's hands and a flatsurface to further even out BP paste distribution and increase burn rateconsistency. Allow the string to dry outside in the sun for a period of 24hours, turning the string over often.5:After the filler has dried, apply a thin coating of Nitrocelluloselacquer to the external surface of the string and allow it to dry in thesun.  Let the fuse sit in the sun for 24 hours after all the components havedried to ensure minimum moisture content. 

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Black MatchBlack Match is perhaps the single most widely used type of fuse, and, due toits simplicity (relative to other fuses), it can be easily made by even thenovice pyrotechnician. However, its simplicity may deceive some. It requiresa lot of patience and practice before one is able to make good andconsistent Black Match every time. 

To make Black Match, take 20 parts of meal-grade Black Powder and mix itintimately (perhaps in a ball mill for 30 minutes) with 1 or 2 parts of dextrin(depending on your burn rate preference, more dextrine makes it burn slower), and put this into a bowl or similarcontainer. Boil some water and add it slowly, while mixing, to theBP/dextrin mixture until a paste with a uniform consistency, about as thickas porridge, has been obtained. 

Next, obtain some cotton string. This should ideally be about 1/16th of aninch in diameter. Then, drop a length of the string into the BP paste-filledbowl, and stir it around with a plastic rod for about 3 minutes. Then, puton some latex gloves (I buy them from the local pharmacy), take the stringout, and rub in the BP paste that stays attatched to the sting with acircular motion of the thumb, index finger, and middle finger. Then, placethe string back into the BP paste bowl and stir it around for anotherminute. 

Next, take a thin piece of sheet metal, lexan, plexiglass, or other non-absorbantmaterial (definitely not wood) and drill a 1/8th" hole through it. This willbe the die used to control the overall diameter of the fuse. Put one end ofthe BP-paste-coated string through the hole and pull until the entire stringhas passed through the hole. This will take off any excess BP paste andensure that the Black Match is 1/8th" in diameter. 

Next, clip one end of the fuse to a rack or similar item and allow it todry. The Black Match is finished. 

 

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 

Quick MatchQuick Match is basically slightly modified Black Match which has beenenclosed in a 1/4" paper tube. When the Quick Match is lit, the tubesurrounding the Black Match core will cause the sparks generated by theburning of the Black Match to flash through the tube instantaneously,igniting the rest of the Black Match core with incredible speed. 

 

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 

Expedient Fuse.An expedient fuse can easily be made.  Start with one full box of book matchesand cut all the match heads off.  Stirr the matches into a cup of bioling water.When the match heads are seperated from the paper, pour thru a screen to capture paper.evaporate water until mixture is a thick paste.  Swirl around a 10 inch length of cotton twine in the thick paste.  Wipe off excess.Bake wet fuses in a 200 degree oven on a cookie sheet for 20 minutes.Use a zazor blade to get them off the cookie sheet when done. 

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------- 

THERMALITEThermalite is a generic term referring to a specific kind of fuse that burns very hot because it contains nichrome wire. It is useful for initiating hard to ignite compositions.  

 

Start by gently but intimately mixing these chemicals together.The chemicals must be as fine as possible.dry mix formula:potassium perchlorate................................... 37 parts potassium chlorate...................................... 30 parts charcoal, air float..................................... 10 parts magnesium, coated with linseed oil  200-325 mesh........ 15 parts red iron oxide, ferric.................................. 5 parts aluminum, -325 mesh, flake.............................. 3 parts sodium bicarbonate(additional).......................... 1 part  

Binder formula: 

vinyl resin....................... 47 parts nitrocellulose lacquer(10%)....... 25 parts dibutyl phthalate(plasticizer).... 10 parts acetone........................... 18 parts  

cut 19 inch lengths of 26 gauge copper wire. rough them up with sandpaper.take 25 grams of dry mix and 17 grams of binder and placed in a 5 ounce paper cup and stirr together.poke a small hole in the bottom of the cup and run the lengths of wire up thru the hole and thru the mixture to coat the wire.Hang to dry, repeat dipping and drying until desired thickness os obtained (1/8 to 3/16 usually)You will have to slightly enlarge the hole between coats.if the mixture gets too thick you can stirr in a few drops of acetone.
 

Friction ignition mixtures

DANGER:Friction ignition mixtures are sensitive to mechanical action. Ignition will result if the two compositions are rubbed against each other.
 

 

Weingart

Weingart

Clark

Clark

 

Scratch igniter 
part I 

Scratch igniter 
part II 

Scratch igniter 
part I 

Scratch igniter 
part II

Potassium chlorate 

67

 

50

 

Manganese dioxide 

 

38

 

 

Antimony trisulfide

22

 

30

 

Red phosphorus

 

48

 

50

Glue

11

14

 

 

Sand

 

 

 

28

Dextrin

 

 

20

22

Tracer compositions I

CAUTION:Compositions containing peroxides are sensitive to initiation. Beginners are advised to avoid such compositions.
 

 

U.S. Patent 3,951,705 

Ellern 

Ellern 

Izzo

Izzo 

Izod and Eather 

Izod and Eather

color

Blue

Green 

Green

Green

Red 

Red 

Red

Potassium perchlorate 

7.7

25

 

 

 

 

 

Barium nitrate

38.5

16

28

 

 

 

 

Strontium nitrate

 

 

 

 

 

42.8

45

Strontium peroxide

 

 

 

 

 

 

10

Barium peroxide

 

 

 

72.5

 

 

 

Magnesium powder

15.4

48

41

15

20

38

35

Copper powder

 

2

 

 

 

 

 

Asphaltum

 

3

 

 

 

 

 

Sulfur

7.7

 

 

 

 

 

 

Magnesium carbonate

 

 

 

 

 

4.8

5

Barium oxalate

 

 

16

5

 

 

 

Cupric chloride

15.4

 

 

 

 

 

 

Strontium oxide

 

 

 

 

40

 

 

Strontium oxalate

 

 

 

 

40

 

 

Hexachlorobenzene

15.3

6

 

 

 

 

 

Parlon

 

 

 

 

 

4.8

 

Shellac

 

 

 

7.5

 

4.8

 

Beeswax

 

 

 

 

 

4.8

 

Polymerized linseed oil 

 

 

 

 

 

 

10

Binder and fuel (unknown) 

 

 

15

 

 

 

 

 

Tracer compositions II

CAUTION: Compositions containing peroxides are sensitive to initiation. Beginners are advised to avoid such compositions.
 

 

Izod and Eather 

Izod and Eather

Izod and Eather

Izod and Eather 

U.S. Patent 2,899,291

Izod and Eather 

color 

Red

Red

Red

Red

Red

Red

Potassium perchlorate

 

38

 

 

 

 

Strontium nitrate

41

 

53

45

30.9

58

Strontium peroxide 

 

 

5

 

 

5

Charcoal

 

 

 

 

0.9

 

Magnesium powder 

35 

48

30

 

31.8

25

Titanium, 8m

 

 

 

48

 

 

Strontium oxalate 

 

38

 

 

 

 

Strontium tartrate

 

 

 

 

27.3

 

Hexachlorobenzene

 

 

 

 

4.6

 

Parlon

20

 

 

3

 

 

Talc

 

+2.5

+2.5

 

 

+2.5

Polymerized linseed oil

 

 

12

 

 

12

Boiled linseed oil 

4

4

 

4

 

 

Stearin

 

 

 

 

4.5

 

 

Tracer compositions III

CAUTION: Compositions containing peroxides are sensitive to initiation. Beginners are advised to avoid such compositions.
 

 

Ellern 

Ellern

U.S. M17 .50 caliber (12.7mm)

U.S. M25 .308 caliber (7.62mm)

U.S. M48 .50 caliber (12.7mm)

U.S. M62 .308 caliber  (7.62mm) 

U.S. M196 .223 caliber (5.56mm)

color 

Red 

Red 

Red

Red

Red 

Red 

Red

Potassium perchlorate

29

20

 

 

 

 

 

Strontium nitrate

18

40

41.8

41.9

32.4

41.9

37.4

Strontium peroxide 

 

 

5.9

20.3

8.6

19.8

21.1

Barium peroxide

 

 

12.9

 

23.5

 

1.1

Lead peroxide

 

 

 

 

 

 

1.1

Magnesium powder 

46

28

23.7

22.6

23.9

23.1

26

Asphaltum

3

 

 

 

 

 

 

Strontium oxalate 

 

8

1.1

 

1.6

 

 

Calcium resinate

 

4

1.9

2.3

2.8

2.3

1.8

Hexachlorobenzene 

4

 

 

 

 

 

 

PVC

 

 

10.6

12.9

6.9

12.9

11.5

Zinc stearate

 

 

0.1

 

0.3

 

 

 

Tracer compositions IV

CAUTION:Compositions containing peroxides are sensitive to initiation. Beginners are advised to avoid such compositions.
 

 

U.S. M220 20mm 

U.S. M242 20mm 

AMCP 706-284

McIntyre

PATR 2700

Ellern

PEP 12(1)

color 

Red 

Red 

Red 

Red 

Red 

Red 

Red 

Potassium perchlorate 

 

 

 

 

20

 

 

Strontium nitrate

35.5

34.5

 

33.3

40

55

40.34

Strontium peroxide

29.7

22.1

65.6

26.7

 

 

 

Barium peroxide 

 

 

3.4

 

 

 

 

Lead peroxide 

 

 

3.4

 

 

 

 

Strontium oxalate 

 

 

 

 

8

 

 

Magnesium powder 

20.5

19.8

 

26.7 (50-100 mesh), 26.7 (powdered)

28

28

24.01

Magnalium, 200 mesh

 

 

21.8

 

 

 

 

Calcium resinate 

3.3

4.3

6

6.7 (of type 1),  1.6 (of type 2)

4

 

19.45

PVC

11

12.6

 

 

 

17

 

Oxamide

 

6.7

 

 

 

 

12.6

Polyethylene

 

 

 

 

 

 

3.6

 

Tracer compositions V
 

 

PEP 12(1) 

TM1316 

TM1316 

TM1316 

TM1316

Ellern 

OP2793 

color 

Red 

Red 

Red 

Red 

Red 

White 

White

Strontium nitrate 

44

38

44

44

44

 

 

Barium nitrate

 

 

 

 

 

60

 

Sodium nitrate 

 

 

 

 

 

 

32.7

Magnesium powder 

21 (as 100-200 mesh), 21 (as 200-325 mesh)

38 (24m atomized)

42 (24m atomized) 

42 (24m atomized) 

42 (24m atomized) 

34

62

Vinyl acetate 
acrylic resin 

7

 

 

 

3

 

 

Polyethylene

 

3 (70m)

7 (70m)

9 (70m)

4 (70m)

 

 

Dechlorane

7

21 (50m)

7 (50m)

5 (50m)

7 (50m)

 

 

Cobalt naphthenate

 

 

 

 

 

 

0.1

Binder **

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.3

Binder and fuel (unknown)

 

 

 

 

 

6

 

** - binder composed of 0.94% Lupersol DDM, 98.96% Laminac
 

Tracer compositions VI
 

 

Ellern 

Ellern 

Ellern 

Izzo 

color 

Yellow 

Yellow 

Yellow 

Yellow 

Potassium perchlorate 

 

31

 

 

Strontium nitrate

40

 

 

 

Barium nitrate

 

 

41

 

Potassium nitrate

 

 

 

50

Magnesium powder

33

49

43

 

Sodium oxalate

17

15

12

 

Asphaltum

 

5

 

 

Realgar

 

 

 

30

Sulfur

 

 

2

20

Binder and fuel (unknown) 

10

 

2

 

 

Tracer composition ignition primes

CAUTION:Compositions containing peroxides are sensitive to initiation. Beginners are advised to avoid such compositions.
 

 

U.S. Patent 2,899,291

OP2793 

Potassium perchlorate 

 

40

Barium peroxide, 200 mesh 

78.4

 

Magnesium, 200 mesh

2.2

 

Antimony trisulfide, 200 mesh 

18.4

 

Charcoal

 

18

Graphite, 325 mesh

1

 

Lead thiocyanate

 

32

Egyptian lacquer

 

10